Of Carlsbad by rail.
Some of them, like the Kreuzbrunnen and the Ferdinandsbrunnen, contain alkaline-saline waters which resemble those of Carlsbad, except that they are cold and contain nearly twice the quantity of purgative salts.
It was the hand of the author of that offensive Missive to Frederick William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the Carlsbad decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a day more important than that of Leipzig" the session of the Vienna conference of 1819, in which it was decided to make the convocation of representative assemblies in the German states impossible, by enforcing the letter of Article XIII.
The result was a deadlock; and, even before the promulgation of the Carlsbad decrees in October 1819 the grand-duke had prorogued the chambers, after three months of sterile debate.
In the autumn of 1846 he was appointed to the chair of history in the university of Freiburg, where he continued to teach until his death at Carlsbad on the 6th of July 1861.
After being nursed by friends at Leipzig and Carlsbad, he rejoined his corps and fell in an engagement outside a wood near Gadebusch in Mecklenburg on the 26th of August 1813.
It is abundant, for example, in the plastic clay of the Brown Coal formation at Littmitz, near Carlsbad, in Bohemia, at which place it has been extensively mined for the manufacture of sulphur and ferrous sulphate.
Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary), and Marienbad (Marif nske Lazne), are famous spas.
Besides Carlsbad and Marienbad, Franzensbad, Teplice (Teplitz), Podebrady (in Bohemia), Luhacovice in Moravia, Piestany, Trencianske Teplice, Sliac and Strbske Pleso (4,100 ft.
Of porcelain 30,000 tons is produced annually in 68 factories, Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad) being the chief centre of the pottery industry.
The sulphate is the chief constituent of Marienbad and Carlsbad waters.
Teplitz is much visited for the after-cure, after Carlsbad and similar spas.
A course at Carlsbad, Vichy or Contrexeville, may be helpful.
But while, during the summer of 1900, Milan was away from Servia taking waters in Carlsbad, and making arrangements to secure the hand of a German princess for his son, and while the premier, Dr Vladan Dyorevich, was visiting the Paris Universal Exhibition, King Alexander suddenly announced to the people of Servia his engagement to Mme Draga Mashin, a widow, formerly a lady-in-waiting to Queen Natalie.
In October, after a preliminary meeting between Metternich and Hardenberg, in the course of which the latter signed a convention pledging Prussia to Austrias system, a meeting of German ministers was held at Carlsbad, the discussion of which issued in the famous Carlsbad Decrees (October 17, 1819).
The Carlsbad Decrees, hurried through the diet under Austrian pressure, excited considerable opposition among the lesser sovereigns, who resented the claim of the diet to interfere in the internal concerns of their states, and whose protests at Frankfort had been expunged from the records.
So long as the repressive machinery instituted by the Carlsbad Decrees worked smoothly, Germany was not likely to be troubled by revolutions.
That the grant of a popular constitution would be fatal to the Prussian monarchy, this was through no love of Prussia; the Carlsbad Decrees and the Vienna Final Act were designed to keep Germany quiet, lest the sleep of Austria should be disturbed; the lofty claims of the Troppau Protocol were but to cover an Austrian aggression directed to purely Austrian ends; and in the Eastern Question, the moral support given to the " legitimate " authority of the sultan over the " rebel " Greeks was dictated solely by the interest of Austria in maintaining the integrity of Turkey.
Though alarmed by the revolutionary agitation in Germany, which culminated in the murder of his agent, the dramatist Kotzebue, Alexander approved of Castlereagh's protest against Metternich's policy of " the governments contracting an alliance against the peoples," as formulated in the Carlsbad decrees, 1819, and deprecated any intervention of Europe to support " a league of which the sole object is the absurd pretensions of absolute power."
Opposed to absolutism, Louis took great interest in the work of organizing the Bavarian constitution (1818) and defended it against Metternich and the Carlsbad Decrees (1819); he was also one of the most zealous of the ardent Philhellenes in Germany at the time.
A little cotton has been grown near Carlsbad in the Pecos Valley, and in 1909 sugar beets were introduced south of Albuquerque and cantaloupes in the southern Rio Grande Valley.
The Carlsbad reservoir and diverting dam in Eddy county and the Rio Hondo canals and reservoir in Chaves county were completed in 1907 and are capable of supplying water to tracts of 20,000 and 10,000 acres respectively.
Amongst the most celebrated saline waters are those of Carlsbad, which contain sulphate of soda and bicarbonate of soda.
These salts crystallize out when the water is partially evaporated and may be used with hot water at home, the best imitation of the Carlsbad water being obtained by mixing with hot water the powdered Carlsbad salts (pulverformig), which contain all the constituents of the natural water.
Where it is impossible for the patient to visit Carlsbad, half a teaspoonful or a teaspoonful of salt may be taken in a large tumbler of hot water on rising every morning; but when taken at home the treatment is not so effective as at Carlsbad, because at the wells sipping water is associated with early rising, considerable exercise and a very carefully regulated diet.
It is, indeed, the care with which the diet of patients is regulated and the difficulty that patients find in obtaining forbidden foods at hotels and restaurants, that make Carlsbad better for the liver than any other watering-place.
Among them are some of the most celebrated mineral springs in the world, such as Carlsbad, Marienbad, Franzensbad, Teplitz-Schtinau and Bilin.
Other springs of importance are llna, Sedlitz and Seidschitz near Briix; Giesshiibl near Carlsbad; Liebwerda, Kiinigswart, Sangerberg, Neudorf, Tetschen, Johannisbad, situated at the foot of the Schneekoppe, &c.
Other important towns are Pilsen (68,292), Budweis (39,360), Aussig (37,255), Schifinau (24,110), Eger (23,665), Warnsdorf (21,150), Briix (21,525), Gablonz (21,086), Asch (18,675), Kladno (18,600), Pardubitz (17,029), Saaz (16,168), Komotau (15,925), Kolin (15,025), Kuttenberg (14,799), Trautenau (14,777), Carlsbad (14,640), Pfibram (13,576),.
Franzensbad is frequently resorted to as an after-cure by patients from Carlsbad and Marienbad.
The tendency of Metternichs ~systern had long been growing distasteful to Castlereagh, who had consistently protested against the attempt to constitute the Grand Alliance general police of Europe and had specially protested against the Carlsbad Decrees (q.v.).
Communication with the Erzgebirge is provided by numerous lines of railway, some, such as that from Freiberg to Briix, that from Chemnitz to Komotau, and that from Zwickau to Carlsbad, crossing the range, while various local lines serve the higher valleys.
The most important are, the alkaline springs of Carlsbad, Marienbad, Franzensbad and Bilin; the alkaline acidulated waters of Giesshiibel, largely used as table waters; the iron springs of Marienbad, Franzensbad and of Pyrawarth in Lower Austria; the bitter waters of Piillna, Saidschitz and Sedlitz; the saline waters of Ischl and of Aussee in Styria; the iodine waters of Hall in Upper Austria; the different waters of Gastein; and lastly the thermal waters of Teplitz-SchOnau, Johannisbad, and of Rcmerbad in Styria.