Severe fighting also took place here during the Carlist War in 1837.
In the Carlist War of 1836 -40 it was held by the Cristinos, and in 1875-76 it was more than once attacked, but never taken, by the Carlists.
C.) Zumalac9rregui, Thomas (1788-1835), Spanish Carlist general, was born at Ormaiztegui in Navarre on the 29th of December 1788.
When the Carlist rising began on the death of Ferdinand he is said to have held back because he knew that the first leaders would be politicians and talkers.
He did not take the field till the Carlist cause appeared to be at a very low ebb, and until he had received a commission from Don Carlos as commander-in-chief in Navarre.
In a few months Zumalacarregui had organized the Carlist forces into a regular army.
Yet by the beginning of June 1835 he had made the Carlist cause triumphant to the north of the Ebro, and had formed an army of more than 30,000 men, of much better quality than the constitutional forces.
The government sent him to the front, directly the Carlist War broke out, as commandant of the province of Biscay, where he severely defeated the Carlists in many encounters.
In 1838 Espartero carefully opened up negotiations with Maroto and the principal Carlist chiefs of the Basque provinces.
These ended in their accepting his terms under the famous convention of Vergara, which secured the recognition of their ranks and titles for nearly loon Carlist officers.
Twenty thousand Carlist volunteers laid down their arms at Vergara; only the irreconcilables led by Cabrera held out for a while in the central provinces of Spain.
One of the arches was broken down in 1213 and rebuilt in 1553; another was blown up by the British troops in 1809, and, though temporarily reconstructed, was again destroyed in 1836, to prevent the passage of the Carlist forces.
At that juncture the first Carlist war broke out, and Lambermont hastened to the scene of action.
In 1868 gave opportunity for a second Carlist war from 1872 to 1876.
This ended, unlike the former one, in the utter defeat of the Carlist forces, and left the Provinces at the mercy of the government, without terms or agreement.
It was the scene of civil war in 1823, and of important revolutionary operations in the Carlist wars.
He joined the Progresista party formed during the first Carlist war, 1833-40.
In consequence, however, of the Carlist rising of 1873-1876, the Basque fueros were finally extinguished in 1876.
He attempted to restore some order in the treasury and administration of finance, with a view to obtain ways and means to cover the expense of the three civil wars, Carlist, cantonal and Cuban.
After the Carlist war the queen-regent, Christina, resigned to make way for Espartero, the most successful and most popular general of the Isabelline armies, who only remained regent, two years.
Thenceforward, despite the check it received from the Carlist rebellion of 1870-1876, and the contemporaneous decline of its wool and shipbuilding industries, its prosperity increased steadily.
But there was little scope there for the activities of a young and energetic subaltern, and, leaving the service in 1836, he entered the Carlist army campaigning in Spain.
The Carlist lieutenantcolonel was glad to be re-admitted into the Prussian service as a second lieutenant, but he was still young, and few subalterns could at the age of twenty-four claim five years' meritorious war service.
This, and the resentment felt at the loss of their autonomy when they were incorporated with the rest of Spain in 1833, account for the strong support given by many Navarrese to the Carlist cause.
A similar though much smaller acceleration in the annual rate of increase after the Carlist Wars of 187476 is largely attributable to the prosperity caused by railway development between 1877 and 1887.
Time of peace, and during the Carlist Wars, 1868 to 1876, Spain had 280,000 under arms, and nearly 350,000 during her more recent wars.
The Carlist \Var lasted from the beginning of Isabellas reign till 1840.
The Alphonsist armies, led by Marshals Campos and Jovellar, swept the Carlist bands from the right hank of the Ebro to the Pyrenees, and took their last strongholds in the eastern provinces, Cantavieja and Seo de Urgel.
Not a few of the Carlist leaders accepted bribes to go abroad, and others put their swords at the disposal of the government for employnmen~ against the Cuban rebels.
Then all the forces of King Aiphonso under Marshal Quesada gradually closed round the remaindel of the Carlist army in Navarre and in the Basque Provinces at the beginning of 1876.
Directly the Carlist War was over, the government used part of the large army at its disposal to reinforce the troops which The Cuban had been fighting the Cuban insurgents since 1869.
A sharp look-out was kept on the doings Republican of the Republicans, whose arch-agitator, Ruiz and Carlist Zorilla, in Paris displayed unusual activity in his 1~~tr~.V~es.
Don Carlos once more showed his wellknown lack of decision and dash, and the Carlist scare passed away.
Her succession was resisted by her uncle Don Carlos, and the Carlist Wars ensued.