In other Carinatae, e.g.
Division Carinatae.-With keeled sternum.
The fourteen orders of the Carinatae are further congregated into four " Legions ".
It follows that new groups of Ratitae can no longer be developed since there are no Carinatae living which still retain so many low characters, e.g.
The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.
There is no evidence, so far as we can see, of his having been aware of Merrem's views; but like that anatomist he without hesitation divided the class into, two great " coupes," to which he gave, however, no other names than " Oiseaux normaux " and" Oiseaux anomaux "-exactly corresponding with his predecessor's Carinatae and Ratitae-and, moreover, he had a great advantage in founding these groups, since he had discovered, apparently from his own investigations, that the mode of ossification in each was distinct; for hitherto the statement of there being five centres of ossification in every bird's sternum seems to have been accepted as a general truth, without contradiction, whereas in the ostrich and the rhea, at any rate, L'Herminier found that there were but two such primitive points, 3 and from analogy 1 Their value was, however, understood by Gloger, who in 1834, as will presently be seen, expressed his regret at not being able to use them.
[[Aves Carinatae [L'H]].
A y es Carinatae aereae.
A y es Carinatae terrestres.
A y es Carinatae aquaticae.
The Carinatae are divided, according to the formation of the palate, into four " Suborders," and named (i.) Dromaeognathae, (ii.) Schizognathae, (iii.) Desmognathae, and (iv.) Aegithognathae.'
3 In reply to some critical remarks (Ibis, 1868, pp. 8 5-9 6), chiefly aimed at showing the inexpediency of relying solely on one set of characters, especially when those afforded by the palatal bones were not, even within the limits of families, wholly diagnostic, the author (Ibis, 1868, pp. 357-362) announced a slight modification of his original scheme, by introducing three more groups into it, and concluded by indicating how its bearings upon the great question of " genetic classification" might be represented so far as the different groups of Carinatae are concerned: - 1 These names are compounded respectively of Dromaeus, the generic name applied to the emeu, 7xQ-a, a split or cleft, SEVµa, a bond or tying, a finch, and, in each case, yvaBos, a jaw.
Kl., p. 259) to the "flat-breasted birds," in opposition to the Carinatae, or those which normally possess a keeled sternum.
The separation of the Ratitae from the other birds, and their seemingly fundamental differences, notably the absence of the keel and of the power of flight, induced certain authors to go so far as to derive the Ratitae from the Dinosaurian reptiles, whilst Archaeopteryx (q.v.) and the Carinatae were supposed to have sprung from some Pterosaurian or similar reptilian stock.
1888), and there is now no doubt that the absence of the power of flight is a secondary, not primitive, feature in the Ratitae as well as in the flightless bona fide Carinatae, e.g.
At any rate we begin to see that some of the Ratitae, namely the Rheidae, may possibly be an early and then much modified offshoot of such of the Carinatae as are now represented by the Crypturi, whilst in another part of the world, and at a much later time, kiwis and moas have sprung from a somewhat more Gallilorm stock, which points to a descent from a still undivided GalliformTinamiform mass.
We restrict the origin of the Ratitae to that great branch of still primitive Carinatae which, after separation of the Ratitae, has further developed into the legion of the Alectoromorphae, notably Tinamiand Galliformes, together with still low Gruiformes (see BIRD, Classification).
Society, 18 74, p. 594) to be "lost," whereas the clavicles, which in most birds unite to form that bone, are present, though they do not meet, while in like manner the bird has been declared (op. cit., 1867, p. 624, note) to furnish among the Carinatae " the only apparent exception to the presence of a keel" to the sternum.
Huxley in his often-quoted paper in the Zoological Proceedings (1867, pp. 4 2 5, 426) was enabled to place the whole matter in a clear light, urging that the Tinamous formed a very distinct group of birds which;, though not to be removed from the Carinatae, presented so much resemblance to the Ratitae as to indicate them to be the bond of union between those two great divisions.