In the 4th century its political development was arrested by constant struggles between oligarchs and democrats, who in turn brought the city under the control of Sparta (4 12 -395, 39 1 -37 8), of Athens (395-39 1, 37 8 -357), and of 'the Carian dynasty of Maussollus (357-340).
They were not considered to be of the same blood as the Carians, and were, therefore, excluded from the temple of the Carian Zeus at Mylasa, which was common to the Carians, Lydians and Mysians, though their language was the same as that of the Carians proper.
A considerable number of short Carian inscriptions has been found, most of them in Egypt.
They were first noticed by Lepsius at Abu-Simbel, where he correctly inferred that they were the work of the Carian mercenaries of Psammetichus.
It was absorbed into the kingdom of Lydia, where Carian troops formed the bodyguard of the king.
This is equally true both of the pictographic and the linear Aegean systems. Its nearest affinities are with the "Asianic" scripts, preserved to us by Hittite, Cypriote and south-west Anatolian (Pamphylian, Lycian and Carian) inscriptions.
For these races respectively DOrpfeld suggests the names "Lycian" and "Carian," the latter coming in from the north Aegean, where Greek tradition remembered its former dominance.
Its origin was ascribed to a Carian colony, whose memory was possibly preserved in Epicarus, the earlier name of the city; it was afterwards occupied by Ionians, and appears to have incorporated a body of Phlegyans from Thessaly.
14), and probably also a history of the Carian hero Heracleides, 1 prince of Mylasae, who distinguished himself in the revolt against Darius (Herodotus v.
4), it is sufficient to recall old Greek traditions of a Carian sea-power and relations between Philistia and Greek lands.'
The culture appears to find Carian and Lydian parallels, and has been ascribed provisionally to the 13th - Ioth centuries.
The Minoan sea-power was at last broken up by invaders from the north, and a Carian rule became dominant in the Aegean (Herod.
These Carian princes ruled as satraps for the Great King, but they modelled themselves upon the pattern of the Greek tyrant.
Even the Carian town of Mylasa now shows the forms of a Greek city and records its public decrees in Greek (C.I.G.
Lydia, and aided by lonian and Carian mercenaries, extended and consolidated his power.i By the ninth year of his reign he was in full possession of Thebes.
Psammetichus guarded the frontiers of Egypt with three strong garrisons, placing the lonian and Carian mercenaries especially at the Pelusiac Daphnae in the N.E., from which q~1arter the most formidable enemy was likely to appear.
In Sam'al the kings Panammu and Q-r-1 have lion-Semitic names (Carian), but the gods include Hadad, El (God par excellence), Resheph and the Sun-deity.
There is, however, considerable evidence in support of the view that Greek va representing the sound arising from Ky, xy, Ty, By was pronounced as sh (s), while representing gy, dy was pronounced in some districts zh (z).4 On an inscription of Halicarnassus, a town which stood in ancient Carian territory, the sound of vv in `AXoKapvaao-Ewv is represented by T, as it is also in the Carian name Panyassis (IIavvfiTcos, geni tive), though the ordinary is also found in the same inscription.
Symbols exactly like k, X, and (a), X, are found in the Carian alphabet, and transliterated by Professor Sayce 1 as v (and ii), h and kh respectively.
If the Carian alphabet goes back to the prehistoric script, why should not Miletus have borrowed them from it?
The Servians and Russians apparently always used the Cyrillic, and its advantages gradually ousted the Glagolitic elsewhere, though the service book in the old ecclesiastical language which is used by the Roman Catholic Croats is in Glagolitic.4 While the Carian and Lycian were probably independent of the Greek in origin, so, too, at the opposite end of the Mediterranean was the Iberian.
Between Rhodes and the Troad Homer knows of but one city, Miletus - which is a Carian ally of Troy - and the mouth of one river, the Cayster.
The statement is on the whole borne out by the few Lydian, Mysian and Carian words that have been preserved, as well as by the general character of the civilization prevailing among the three nations.
A few years later Gyges joined in the revolt against Assyria, and the Ionic and Carian mercenaries he despatched to Egypt enabled Psammetichus to make himself independent.
According to a Carian tradition reported by Herodotus (i.
The democratic party in Rhodes now appealed to Athens for help in throwing off the Carian yoke.
Another derivation suggested is from Aaf3pus, a Lydian or Carian word meaning a "double-edged axe" (Journal of Hellenic Studies, xxi.
Nevertheless, Darius left European Greece to itself, till the support accorded to the ronian and Carian insurgents by Athens and Eretria (499 B.C.) made war inevitable.