His next aim was the cardinalate, and, after long and most profitable negotiations on the part of Pope Clement XI., the red hat was given to him by Innocent XIII.
It is estimated that this cardinalate cost France about eight million francs.
His own family was fortified by the marriage of his daughter to a son of Innocent VIII., which procured his son Giovannis elevation~to the cardinalate, and involved two Medicean papacies and the future dependence of Florence upon Rome.
In 1514, and reaped his reward in the bishoprics of Lincoln and Tournai, the archbishopric of York, which was conferred on him by papal bull in September, and the cardinalate which he had sent Polydore Vergil to beg from Leo X.
Cesare, who renounced his cardinalate, was sent on a mission to France at the end of the year, bearing a bull of divorce for the new king Louis XII., in exchange for which he obtained the duchy of Valentinois (hence his title of Duca Valentino) and a promise of material assistance in his schemes to subjugate the feudal princelings of Romagna; he married a princess of Navarre.
The bishop of Lugon was led to believe that the king would recommend him for a cardinalate, but, if we may trust the evidence, Luynes secretly opposed the request, and it was not until after his death that Richelieu was made a cardinal by Pope Gregory XV., on the 5th of September 1622.
His expectations of the cardinalate were disappointed by Pius V.'s death in 1572, and Sanders spent the next few years at Madrid trying to embroil Philip II., who gave him a pension of 300 ducats, in open war with Elizabeth.
Frederick, who had been raised to the cardinalate by Leo IX., acted for some time as papal legate at Constantinople, and was with Leo in his unlucky expedition against the Normans.
By the promotion to the cardinalate of such men as Contarini, Caraffa, Pole and Morone, and the appointment of a commission to report upon existing evils and their remedy, the way was opened for reform; while by the introduction of the Inquisition into Italy (1542), the establishment of the censorship and the Index (1543), and the approval of the Society of Jesus (1540), most efficient agencies were set on foot for combating heresy.
He refused the title of first minister, but his elevation to the cardinalate in that year secured his precedence over the other ministers.
His nominations to the cardinalate were not happy.
He was degraded from the cardinalate by Leo X.
His services were rewarded by a cardinalate and the archbishopric of Ferrara.
After occupying the episcopal sees of Therouanne and Cambrai, he attained to the cardinalate at an early age.
In a few years Leo had made peace with Austria, pacified Switzerland and Belgium, opened up negotiations with Russia; while his elevation of Newman to the cardinalate (1879) made a great impression in Great Britain.
Raised him to the cardinalate; and in 1450 he was appointed bishop of Brixen against the wish of Sigismund, archduke of Austria, who opposed the reforms the new bishop sought to introduce into the diocese.
Returning to England to raise money for a fresh crusade, he was received with great state in London; but his acceptance of the cardinalate had weakened his position and Gloucester refused to recognize his legatine commission.