Here Consalvi soon became one of the cardinal's favourite proteges.
In 1535 he received his cardinal's hat; in1536-1537he was nominated "lieutenant-general" to the king at Paris and in the Ile de France, and was entrusted with the organization of the defence against the imperialists.
He was attacked by assassins on the steps of St Peter's and badly wounded; attendants carried him to a cardinal's house, and, fearing poison, he was nursed only by his wife and Sancha, his sister-in-law.
The policy of repression which in this capacity he pursued during the next five years secured for him many tangible rewards, in 1560 he was elevated to the archiepiscopal see of Malines, and in 1561 he received the cardinal's hat; but the growing hostility of a people whose religious convictions he had set himself to trample under foot ultimately made it impossible for him to continue in the Low Countries; and by the advice of his royal master he, in March 1564, retired to FrancheComte.
Henry meanwhile, however, had sent William Knight, his secretary, on a separate mission to Rome to obtain facilities for his marriage with Anne; and on the cardinal's return in August he found her installed as the king's companion and proposed successor to Catherine of Aragon.
His palaces outshone those of his king, and few monarchs could afford such a display of plate as commonly graced the cardinal's table.
A man of strict and simple life, he did not hesitate at the legatine synod of 1517 to censure the clergy, in the presence of the brilliant Wolsey himself, for their greed of gain and love of display; and in the convocation of 1523 he freely opposed the cardinal's demand for a subsidy for the war in Flanders.
Cesare, then a youth of sixteen and a student at Pisa, was made archbishop of Valencia, his nephew Giovanni received a cardinal's hat, and for the duke of Gandia and Giuffre the pope proposed to carve fiefs out of the papal states and the kingdom of Naples.
Alexander now feared that the king might depose him for simony and summon a council, but he won over the bishop of St Malo, who had much influence over the king, with a cardinal's hat, and agreed to send Cesare, as legate, to Naples with the French army, to deliver Jem to Charles and to give him Civitavecchia (January 16, 1495).
Unfortunately politics were inextricably interwoven with the religious controversies of the time, and resistance to English influence involved resistance to the activities of the reformers in the church, whose ultimate victory has obscured the cardinal's genuine merits as a statesman.
The pope refused to interfere directly, and the nuncio, Mgr Lorenzelli, failed in securing more than ten public adhesions to the cardinal's condemnation from among the eighty bishops of France.
The family produced not a few turbulent warriors during the Hundred Years' War, and the cardinal's father, Francois du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, began his career by killing the murderer of his elder brother and then fighting through the wars of religion, first as a favourite of Henry III., and after his death under Henry IV.
In any case the countess profited by the cardinal's conviction to borrow from him sums of money destined ostensibly for the queen's works of charity.
When the time came to pay, the comtesse de Lamotte presented the cardinal's notes; but these were insufficient, and Boehmer complained to the queen, who told him that she had received no necklace and had never ordered it.
He was ordained priest at Rome, and was, even before the end of 1550, mentioned as a likely candidate for the cardinal's hat.
But though he thus sacrificed his own prospects to the cardinal's good pleasure, Dlugosz was far too sagacious to approve of the provocative attitude of Olesnicki, and frequently and fearlessly remonstrated with him on his conduct.
The office of administering the cardinal's estate was a very ungrateful one, for the family resented the liberal benefactions of their kinsman to the Church and the univesity, and accused Dlugosz of exercising undue influence, from which charge he triumphantly vindicated himself.
On the cardinal's return in 1627 he took Holstenius to live with him in his palace and made him his librarian.
The Order thus reached the highest pinnacle of its fame, and new knights flocked to be enrolled therein from the flower of the nobility of Europe; La Valette refused a cardinal's hat, determined not to impair his independence.
He supported Suffolk over the king's marriage with Margaret of Anjou; but afterwards there arose some difference between them, due in part to a dispute about the nomination of the cardinal's nephew, Thomas Kempe, to the bishopric of London.
Refused him the cardinal's hat, and rebuked him for his liberalism in a letter which was probably not intended for publication.
This nomination was accompanied with an intimation that more was in store for him, and that steps would be taken to provide for him the income, viz., 3000 ducats, which was necessary to qualify for the cardinal's hat.
In 1542 he received the cardinal's hat, and in 1578 when he was called to succeed his grandnephew Sebastian on the throne, he held the archbishoprics of Lisbon and Coimbra as well as that of Braga, in addition to the wealthy abbacy of Alcobazar.
He owed his cardinal's hat; but the steady favour which he enjoyed under successive popes was due to his own cleverness and capacity for affairs.
He had to meet the cardinal's creditors and to find money for the expenses of the household.
Admission to the cardinal's family was esteemed a high privilege, and was sought as a school of manners and as an introduction to the world by the sons of the best families in the kingdom.
The fruits of this compact were reaped by Cesare Borgia, who resigned his cardinal's hat, became duke of Valentinois, annihilated the minor nobles of the papal state, and made himself the true dictator of Rome.
The offer of a cardinal's hat by Pope Paul III.
So enraged was he with his brother Henry's acceptance of a cardinal's hat in July 1747, that he deliberately broke off communication with his father in Rome (who had approved the step), nor did he ever see him again.
He met with much opposition to his reforms. The governor of the province, and many of the senators, apprehensive that the cardinal's ordinances and proceedings would encroach upon the civil jurisdiction, addressed remonstrances and complaints to the courts of Rome and Madrid.
He was concerned in the Fronde of 1651, but soon afterwards became reconciled with Mazarin, and in 16J4 married the cardinal's niece, Anne Marie Martinozzi (1639-1672), and secured the government of Guienne.
Offered him a cardinal's hat which Henry V.
Anxious to secure his aid for the crusade against the Hussites, Pope Martin again offered him a cardinal's hat, which Beaufort accepted.
Nevertheless the cardinal's authority remained supreme in the council, and Suffolk, as his chief supporter, gained increasing influence.
When it met in 1523 it refused Wolsey's demands, and forced loans were the result which increased the cardinal's unpopularity.
At the Council of Basel he was one of the ablest supporters of the view of the Roman curia, and he was rewarded with a cardinal's hat in 1439.
Jouffroy entered Louis's service, and obtained a cardinal's hat (1461), the bishopric of Albi (1462), and the abbacy of St Denis (1464).
In 1872 he was consecrated bishop of Salford, and in 1892 succeeded Manning as archbishop of Westminster, receiving the cardinal's hat in 1893.
He weakly yielded to pressure and bestowed the cardinal's hat upon the corrupt and debauched Dubois.
Just eight years later its fabric was complete, and June 1903 saw both the Cardinal's Requiem Mass and Elgar's first London performance of "The Dream of Gerontius" held in its towering nave.