He had to steer a middle course between the extremes represented by the Carbonari on the one hand and the Sanfedisti on the other, and he consistently refused to employ the cruel and inquisitorial methods in vogue under his successors.
On the 10th of March the garrison of Alessandria mutinied, and its example was followed on the 12th by that of Turin, where the Spanish constitution was demanded, and the black, red and blue flag of the Carbonari paraded the Streets.
1820 Maroncelli and the poet Silvio Pellico had been arrested as Carbonari, and after the movement in Piedmont more arrests were made.
The secret societies, such as the Carbonari, the Adelfi and the Bersaghieri dAmerica, which flourished in.
In Modena Duke Francis, ambitious of enlarging his territories, coquetted with the Carbonari of Paris, and opened indirect negotiations with Menotti, the revolutionary leader in his state, believing that he might assist him in his plans.
AMAND BAZARD (1791-1832), French socialist, the founder of a secret society in France corresponding to the Carbonari of Italy, was born at Paris.
But there were strong Italian nationalists and anti-Austrian tendencies among the younger nobles and army officers, and the Carbonari and other revolutionary societies had made much progress.
He hunted down the Carbonari and the Freemasons; he took the strongest measures against political agitation in theatres.
The army indeed was honeycombed with Carbonari, and General Pepe, himself a member of the society, organized them on a military basis.
The government tended to become more and more autocratic and to rely wholly on the all-powerful police, the spies and the priests; and, although the king showed some independence in foreign affairs, his popularity waned; the desire for a constitution was by no means dead, and the survivors of the old Carbonari gathered round Carlo Poerio, while the Giovane Italia society (independent of Mazzini), led by Benedetto Musolino, took as its motto " Unity, Liberty and Independence."
While engaged in suppressing brigandage in the Capitanata, Pepe organized the carbonari into a national militia, and was preparing to use them for political purposes.
Besides the above-mentioned works he wrote Gli Eretici in Italia (Milan, 1873); Cronistoria dell' Indipendenza italiana (Naples, 1872-1877); Il Conciliatore e i Carbonari (Milan, 1878), &c. (L.
The result was an alarming spread of the influence and activity of the secret society of the Carbonari, which in time affected a large part of the army.
The parliament was now dismissed, and Ferdinand inaugurated an era of savage persecution, supported by spies and informers, against the Liberals and Carbonari, the Austrian commandant in vain protesting against the savagery which his presence alone rendered possible.
In 1821 he co-operated with Saint-Amand Bazard and others in founding a secret association, modelled on that of the Italian Carbonari, with the object of organizing a general armed rising against the government.
CARBONARI (an Italian word meaning "charcoal-burners"), the name of certain secret societies of a revolutionary tendency which played.
Societies of a similar nature had existed in other countries and epochs, but the stories of the derivation of the Carbonari from mysterious brotherhoods of the middle ages are purely fantastic. The Carbonari were probably an offshoot of the Freemasons, from whom they differed in important particulars, and first began to assume importance in southern Italy during the Napoleonic wars.
Murat's minister of police was a certain Malghella (a Genoese), who favoured the Carbonari movement, and was indeed the instigator of all that was Italian in the king's policy.
But Malghella continued secretly to protect the Carbonari and even to organize them, so that on the return of the Bourbons in 1815 King Ferdinand IV.
When King Ferdinand felt himself securely re-established at Naples he determined to exterminate the Carbonari, and to this end his minister of police, the prince of Canosa, set up another secret society called the Calderai del Contrappeso (braziers of the counterpoise), recruited from the brigands and the dregs of the people, who committed hideous excesses against supposed Liberals, but failed to exterminate the movement.
The first rising actively promoted by the Carbonari was the Neapolitan revolution of 1820.
But the Carbonari were unable to carry on the government, and after the separatist revolt of Sicily had broken out the king went to the congress of Laibach, and obtained from the emperor of Austria the loan of an army with which to restore the autocracy.
Here as in Naples the Carbonari comprised many men of rank, such as Santorre di Santarosa, Count San Marzano, Giacinto di Collegno, and Count Moffa di Lisio, all officers in the army, and they were more or less encouraged by Charles Albert, the heir-presumptive to the throne.
In the papal states a society called the Sanfedisti or Bande della Santa Fede had been formed to checkmate the Carbonari, and their behaviour and character resembled those of the Calderai of Naples.
The Austrians occupied Romagna and restored the province to the pope, but though many arrests of Carbonari were made there were no executions.
The Carbonari after these events ceased to have much importance, their place being taken by the more energetic Giovane Italia Society presided over by Mazzini.
The example of the Spanish and Italian revolutions incited the French Carbonari, and risings occurred at Belfort, Thouars, La Rochelle and other towns in 1821, which though easily quelled revealed the nature and organization of the movement.
- MUCh information on the Carbonari will he found in R.
Cavallotti, Rome, 1904); Saint-Edme, Constitution et organisation des Carbonari; P. Colletta, Storia del Reame di Napoli (Florence, 1848); B.