He had to steer a middle course between the extremes represented by the Carbonari on the one hand and the Sanfedisti on the other, and he consistently refused to employ the cruel and inquisitorial methods in vogue under his successors.
The movement in Naples had been purely local, for the Neapolitan Carbonari had at that time no thought save of Naples; it was, moreover, a movement of the middle ~ 517 and upper classes in which the masses took little Piedmont.
On the 10th of March the garrison of Alessandria mutinied, and its example was followed on the 12th by that of Turin, where the Spanish constitution was demanded, and the black, red and blue flag of the Carbonari paraded the Streets.
1820 Maroncelli and the poet Silvio Pellico had been arrested as Carbonari, and after the movement in Piedmont more arrests were made.
The secret societies, such as the Carbonari, the Adelfi and the Bersaghieri dAmerica, which flourished in.
In Modena Duke Francis, ambitious of enlarging his territories, coquetted with the Carbonari of Paris, and opened indirect negotiations with Menotti, the revolutionary leader in his state, believing that he might assist him in his plans.
AMAND BAZARD (1791-1832), French socialist, the founder of a secret society in France corresponding to the Carbonari of Italy, was born at Paris.
After completing a brilliant university course at Bologna, which he interrupted to take part in the revolution of 1831 (see Carbonari), he practised as a physician at Russi and at Ravenna.
But there were strong Italian nationalists and anti-Austrian tendencies among the younger nobles and army officers, and the Carbonari and other revolutionary societies had made much progress.
He hunted down the Carbonari and the Freemasons; he took the strongest measures against political agitation in theatres.
The army indeed was honeycombed with Carbonari, and General Pepe, himself a member of the society, organized them on a military basis.
The government tended to become more and more autocratic and to rely wholly on the all-powerful police, the spies and the priests; and, although the king showed some independence in foreign affairs, his popularity waned; the desire for a constitution was by no means dead, and the survivors of the old Carbonari gathered round Carlo Poerio, while the Giovane Italia society (independent of Mazzini), led by Benedetto Musolino, took as its motto " Unity, Liberty and Independence."
While engaged in suppressing brigandage in the Capitanata, Pepe organized the carbonari into a national militia, and was preparing to use them for political purposes.
Besides the above-mentioned works he wrote Gli Eretici in Italia (Milan, 1873); Cronistoria dell' Indipendenza italiana (Naples, 1872-1877); Il Conciliatore e i Carbonari (Milan, 1878), &c. (L.
The result was an alarming spread of the influence and activity of the secret society of the Carbonari, which in time affected a large part of the army.
The parliament was now dismissed, and Ferdinand inaugurated an era of savage persecution, supported by spies and informers, against the Liberals and Carbonari, the Austrian commandant in vain protesting against the savagery which his presence alone rendered possible.
In 1821 he co-operated with Saint-Amand Bazard and others in founding a secret association, modelled on that of the Italian Carbonari, with the object of organizing a general armed rising against the government.