Coal then meant the carbonaceous residue obtained in the destructive distillation of wood, or what is known as charcoal, and the name collier was applied indifferently to both coal-miners and charcoal-burners.
Other minerals which occur in the rocks of this group are calcite, garnet, biotite, chloritoid, epidote, tourmaline and graphite or dark carbonaceous materials.
Usually the original organic substance remains as a thin carbonaceous layer forming the surface of the cast, but sometimes it has entirely disappeared.
Here there has not necessarily been any replacement of organic by inorganic material; the whole leaf, for example, may remain, though reduced to a carbonaceous film.
In such carbonaceous impression not only are the form and markings, such as venation, perfectly preserved, but something of the actual structure may remain.
The whole organic substance may have been removed, or may persist merely as a thin carbonaceous layer.
Although some information as to minute structure may often be gleaned from the carbonaceous coating of impressions, the fossils preserved by petrifaction are the main source of our knowledge of the structural characters of ancient plants.
In cases of doubt, evidence may be obtained from traces of organic structure, from the presence of carbonaceous matter, or, as Zeiller has pointed out, by the remains of animals such as Bryozoa being attached to the cast, showing that it represents a solid body and not a mere cavity or furrow.
Evidence from traces of organization is alone ' conclusive; the presence of carbonaceous matter, though a useful indication, may be deceptive, for the organic substance may have been derived from other sources than the body which left the impression.
This is one of the somewhat doubtful Algae occurring in boghead coal or torbanite, a carbonaceous rock the nature of which has been much disputed, in the law courts as well as in scientific literature.
(I) carbonaceous impressions of the leafy branches, the fructifications and other parts; (2) casts of the stem; these are usually internal, or medullary casts, as described above.
Around the cast the organic tissues may be represented by a carbonaceous layer, on the outer surface of which the external features, such as the remains of leaves, can sometimes be traced.
More usually, however, the carbonaceous film is thin, and merely shows the impress of the medullary cast within; (3) petrified specimens of all parts - stem, roots, leaves and fructifications - showing the internal structure, more or less perfectly preserved.
A considerable number of Calamarian fructifications are known, preserved, some as carbonaceous impressions, others as petrified specimens, exhibiting the internal structure.
The great majority of specimens of fossil fern-like plants are preserved in the form of carbonaceous impressions of fronds, often of remarkable perfection and beauty.
The commonest impurities are: - (1) organic matter, humus, &c. (exemplified by clay-soils with an admixture of peat, oil shales, carbonaceous shales); (2) fossils (such as plants in the shales of the Lias and Coal Measures, shells in clays of all geological periods and in fresh water marls); (3) carbonate of lime (rarely altogether absent, but abundant.
We may mention also graphiticschists containing dark scaly graphite (often altered forms of carbonaceous shales), and haematite-schists which may represent beds of ironstone.
The earlier supporters of the organic theory held that it was a product of the natural distillation of coal or carbonaceous matter; but though in a few instances volcanic intrusions appear to have converted coal or allied substances into oil, it seems that terrestrial vegetation does not generally give rise to petroleum.
Thus, a mixture of lead sulphate (45%) and oxide (44%) with some sulphide (8%), zinc and carbonaceous matter, is agglomerated by a heap-roast and then smelted in a slag-eye furnace with grey slag from the ore-hearth.
The fatty matter, however, it must be borne in mind, is the expression of dissimilation of the actual substance of the proteids of the tissues, not of the splitting up of proteids or other carbonaceous nourishment supplied to them.
When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.
Above Lima the western chain of the Andes is composed of porphyritic tuffs and massive limestones, while the longitudinal valley of the Oroya is hollowed in carbonaceous sandstones.
The carbonaceous sandstone contains Gault fossils.
In its most general sense the term " coal " includes all varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it is now usual in England to restrict it to the particular varieties of such minerals occurring in the older Carboniferous formations.
They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion as a residue or " ash."
By the term " ash " is understood the mineral matter remaining unconsumed after the complete combustion of the carbonaceous portion of a coal.
These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.
Having its ignition point below that of ordinary gas, it can be ignited by any redhot carbonaceous matter, such as the brightly glowing end of a cigar.
By weight of carbonaceous material.
The fat (which when separated we know as butter) and the lactose constitute the carbonaceous portion of the milk regarded as food.
It has also been observed as a product of contact-metamorphism in carbonaceous clay-slates near their contact with granite, and where igneous rocks have been intruded into beds of coal; in these cases the mineral has clearly been derived from organic matter.
If much carbonaceous matter be present (and this is generally so when iron sponge is used as the precipitant) the crude product is heated to redness in the air; this burns out the carbon, and, at the same time, oxidizes a little of the copper, which must be subsequently reduced.
None of the inclusions in the diamond gives any clue to its origin; diamond itself has been found as an inclusion, as have also black specks of some carbonaceous materials.
The many steel objects which need an extremely hard outer surface but a softer and more malleable interior may be carburized superficially by heating them in contact with charcoal or other carbonaceous matter, for instance for between 5 and 48 hours at a temperature of 800° to goo° C. This is known as " case hardening."
Klebs has shown that the development of zoosporangia or of oogonia and pollinodia respectively in Saprolegnia is dependent on the external conditions; so long as a continued stream of suitable food-material is ensured the mycelium grows on without forming reproductive organs, but directly the supplies of nitrogenous and carbonaceous food fall below a certain degree of concentration sporangia are developed.
Like these they require water, small but indispensable quantities of salts of potassium, magnesium, sulphur and phosphorus, and supplies of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials in different stages of complexity in the different cases.
The want of chlorophyll restricts their mode of life - which is rarely aquatic - since they are therefore unable to decompose the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere, and renders them dependent on other plants or (rarely) animals for their carbonaceous food-materials.
In this case the carbonaceous beds-coal-seams-naturally appealed most strongly to the imagination, and the name is a good one, notwithstanding the fact that coal-seams occupy but a small fraction of the total thickness of the Carboniferous system; and although subsequent investigations have demonstrated the existence of coal in other geological formations, in none of these does it play so prominent a part.
Nutrition (assimilation) by the leaves includes the inhalation of air, and the interaction under the influence of light and in the presence of chlorophyll of the carbon dioxide of the air with the water received from the root, to form carbonaceous food.
Respiration in plants, as in other organisms, is a process that goes on by night as well as by day and consists in plants in the breaking up of the complex carbonaceous substances formed by assimilation into less complex and more transportable substances.
The larger materials include gravel of all degrees of coarseness; carbonaceous matter is often an important element.
The meta-sedimentary rocks of the Archean include metamorphosed limestone, and schists which carry carbonaceous matter in the form of graphite.