But while the province in many parts presents a landscape of luxuriant beauty, it is a prey to the ravages of disease, principally malarial fevers due to the extensive swamps formed by waters stagnating in the forests, and to the frequent incursions of the Goklan and Yomut Turkomans, who have their camping-grounds in the northern part of the province, and until about 1890 plundered caravans sometimes at the very gates of Astarabad city, and carried people off into slavery and bondage.
Of Asia, and were brought, through Russian caravans, even so far as to Pomerania, Sweden and Norway, where Samanid coins have been found in great number, were in their turn overthrown by a more youthful and vigorous race, that of Sabuktagin, which founded the illustrious Ghaznevid dynasty and the Mussulman empire of India.
There is reason to believe that before the 6th century B.C. the caravans reached Damascus without coming near the oasis of Tadmor; probably, therefore, we may connect the origin of the city with the gradual forward movement of the nomad Arabs which followed on the overthrow of the ancient nationalities of Syria by the Babylonian Empire (6th century B.C.).
Originally an Arab settlement, the oasis was transformed in the course of time from a mere halting-place for caravans to a city of the first rank.
The true Arab despises agriculture; but the pursuit of commerce, the organization and conduct of trading caravans, cannot be carried on without widespread connexions of blood and hospitality between the merchant and the leading sheiks on the route.
His attacks on the pilgrim caravans, begun in 1783 and constantly repeated, startled the Mahommedan world,' and compelled the attention of the sultan, as the nominal protector of the faithful.
The latter were indubitably the Ugrian nomads of the steppe, akin to the Tatar invaders of Europe, who filled the armies and convoyed the caravans of the ruling caste.
The arrival of the first railway train, on the 9th of February 1880, marked a new epoch in the history of Santa Fe, which until then had remained essentially a Mexican town; but with the discontinuance of the wagon caravans over the old trail, it lost its importance as the entrepot for the commerce of the South-west.
Meanwhile Raynald of Krak took advantage of the position of his fortress, which lay on the great route of trade from Damascus and Egypt, to plunder the caravans (1182), and thus helped to precipitate the inevitable attack by Saladin.
A compact with the Turks, made in 1370 and renewed in the next century, saved Ragusa from the fate of its more powerful neighbours, Servia and Byzantium, besides enabling the Ragusan caravans to penetrate into Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria and Rumania.
Dikwa is the centre of an important trade of which the chief articles are coffee, sugar, velvet, silk and weapons, as well as gold and silver objects brought by caravans from Tripoli.
Good roads connect some of the great Hausa cities, and Kano and Kuka are starting-points for caravans across the Sahara to the Mediterranean.
In Northern Nigeria up to the moment of the British occupation the foreign trade was chiefly in the hands of Tripoli Arabs whose caravans crossed the desert at great risk and expense, and carried to the markets of Kuka and Kano tea, sugar and other European goods, taking away the skins and feathers which constituted the principal articles of export to the Mediterranean coast.
Later it became a halting-place for the caravans of slaves brought from Darfur to Egypt.
The "caravans" of boats laden with iron-ware, starting from the Urals works in the spring, reach Nizhniy in August, after a stay at the fair of Laishev, which supplies the lower Volga; and the purchases of iron made at Nizhniy for Asia and middle Russia determine the amount of credit that will be granted for the next year's business to the owners of the ironworks, on which credit most of them entirely depend.
Illorin is a great trading centre, Hausa caravans bringing goods from central Africa, and merchandise from the coasts of the Mediterranean, which is distributed from Illorin to Dahomey, Benin and the Lagos hinterland, while from the Guinea coast the trade is in the hands of the Yoruba and comes chiefly through Lagos.
From its situation on the route of the caravans between Smyrna and western Asia on the one hand, and Armenia, Georgia, &c., on the other, the city became a place of extensive trade, and its bazaars are well stocked with the merchandise of both Europe and the East.
In early days Mexican and American military detachments escorted the caravans on either side of the international line.
Of Omsk, and chief centre for the caravans coming from Tashkent and Bokhara; Atbasar (3030); Kokchetav (5000); and Petropavlovsk (21,769 in 1901).
Their caravans traversed the length and breadth of the peninsula.
The trade with Santa Fe began about 1804, although regular caravans were begun only about 1825.
It is served by dug-outs, three in number in 1899, and capable of carrying about fifteen men on a trip. Formerly the trade was very considerable, and the Burmese had a customs station on the island, from which the place takes its name; but the rebellion in the great state of Theinni, and the southward movement of the Kachins, as well as the Mahommedan rebellion in Yunnan, diverted the caravans to the northern route to Bhamo, which is still chiefly followed.
Traffic is carried on principally by means of caravans of camels, horses, asses and oxen.
An active trade was carried on by means of caravans, corn and silk especially being mentioned at a very early date.
Caravans from Sus laden with copper-ware, olive oil, butter, saffron, wax, skins, dates, dried roses, &c., are sent to Marrakesh, four days' journey from Tarudant.
From here the caravans start for Persia, and at certain periods of the year long trains of camels may be seen, and Persian merchants conspicuous by their high black caps and long robes.
This age, with its regular maritime intercourse between the Aegean settlements, Phoenicia and the Delta, and with lines of caravans connecting Babylonia, North Syria, Arabia and Egypt, presents a remarkable picture of life and activity, in the centre of which lies Palestine, with here and there Egyptian colonies and some traces of Egyptian cults.
Control the routes of the caravans, especially the route from Damascus to Egypt and the Red Sea.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
Of Bulhar, a centre for caravans from Shoa and Ogaden.
Rohlfs informs us that " any one who did not know the way " by which the caravans passed " would only have to follow the bones which lie right and left of the track."
In every direction English influence penetrated, and Englishmen before 1603 might be found in every quarter of the globe, following Drakes lead into the Pacific, painfully breaking the ice in search of a north-east or a north-west passage, hunting for slaves in the wilds of Africa, journeying in caravans across the steppes of Russia into central Asia, bargaining with the Turks on the shores of the Golden Horn, or with the Greeks in the Levant, laying the foundations of the East India Company, or of the colonies of Virginia and Newfoundland.
Near Bilma is a small circular oasis, kept green by a fine spring, but immediately to the south begins the most dreary part of the Saharan desert, over which the caravans travel for fifteen days without discovering the slightest trace of vegetable life.
East of the coast of El Hasa, in the Persian Gulf, a little to the south of the port of El Katif, which, if rightly identified with the ancient Gerrha, has been celebrated throughout history as the mart of Indian trade, the starting-point of caravans across Arabia.
In the 15th century the great Eastern trade with Europe was carried on by the Venetian Republic - Venice was the gate from West to East, and her fleets, richly laden with goods brought down to the shores of the Mediterranean in caravans, supplied Europe with the luxuries of the Orient.
Serious rioting arose only in Shiraz and Fars, where some persons lost their lives and a number of caravans were looted.
At Tashkurghan the caravans from India and Bokhara meet, and from here the merchandise is distributed all over the country.
From Missouri caravans of pack animals, and later wagon trains, set out in May of each year on the Boo m.
The other centres of population are Shingeti, Wadan and Ujeft, Shingeti being the chief commercial centre, whence caravans take to St Louis gold-dust, ostrich feathers and dates.
Of and terminus of a railway from Zagazig, on the edge of the desert south of Lake Menzala, and the starting-point of the caravans to Syria; Mataria (15,142) on Lake Menzala and headquarters of the fishing industry; Zifta (13,850) on the Damietta branch and the site of a barrage; Samant~4 (14,408), also on the Damietta branch, noted for its pottery, and Fua (14,515), where large quantities of tarbushes are made, on the Rosetta branch.
The permanent population is under 10,000; but from October to April the population rises to 30,000 or more by the arrival of caravans from Ogaden and Dolbahanta.
The ivory and feather caravans from Wadai and Borku have latterly deserted it altogether.