One of the gates is formed by the quadrifrontal arch of Caracalla, a rare form of construction.
The emperor Caracalla, wishing to make use of this civil war for a conquest of the East in imitation of his idol, Alexander the Great, attacked the Parthians in 216.
Under the constitution of Caracalla (198-217) all inhabitants of the Roman empire enjoyed the civil rights of the Cives Romani (Scherer, Die Rechtsverhaltnisse der Juden, p. Io).
At a later date, probably under Septimius Severus or Caracalla (beginning of 3rd century), Palmyra received the Jus italicum and the status of a colony; the executive officials of the council and people were called strategoi, equivalent to the Roman duumviri (NSI.
One of his chief objects was the abolition of distinctions between the provinces and the mother country, finally carried out by Caracalla, while at the same time he did not neglect reforms that were urgently called for in Italy.
215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city; and, in order to repay some insulting satires that the inhabitants had made upon him, he commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre was the result.
Heron de Villefosse, who has laid bare a beautiful temple of Jupiter, a triumphal arch of Caracalla, a Byzantine basilica and the gate of the Byzantine general Solomon.
He ornamented the city with baths, and surrounded the hippodrome with porticos; but it was not till the time of Caracalla that it was restored to its former political privileges.
The great courts of approach were not finished before the reigns of Caracalla and Philip. In commemoration, no doubt, of the dedication of the new sanctuaries, Severus conferred the jus Italicum on the city.
His successors, Caracalla and Severus Alexander (211-235), accepted the position, and many inscriptions refer to building or rebuilding executed by them for the greater efficiency of the frontier defences.
On the murder of Caracalla (217), Julia Maesa, Varius's grandmother and Caracalla's aunt, left Rome and retired to Emesa, accompanied by her grandsons (Varius and Alexander Severus).
Between him and his brother Caracalla there existed from their early years a keen rivalry and antipathy.
On the death of their father in 211 they were proclaimed joint emperors; and after the failure of a proposed arrangement for the division of the empire, Caracalla pretended a desire for reconciliation.
2; Spartianus, Caracalla, 2; Herodian iv.
Conflict with the emperor Caracalla in the year 213.
A road, the Via Ardeatina, led to Ardea direct from Rome; the gate by which it left the Servian wall was the Porta Naevia; a large tomb behind the baths of Caracalla lay on its course.
But while he gives a lively account of external events - such as the death of Commodus and the assassination of Pertinaxthe barbarian invasions, the spread of Christianity, the extension of the franchise by Caracalla are unnoticed.
Caracalla in 216 abolished the kingdom of Osroene (Dio Cass.
Caracalla made it a Roman colony, and later it became the capital of a small province, Phoenicia Libanesia or ad Libanum.
CARACALLA (or [[Caracallus), Marcus A Urel I Us Antoninus]] (186-217), Roman emperor, eldest son of the emperor Septimius Severus, was born at Lugdunum (Lyons) on the 4th of April 186.
His original name was Bassianus; his nickname Caracalla was derived from the long Gallic tunic which he wore and introduced into the army.
After the death of Severus (211) at Eboracum (York) in Britain, Caracalla and his brother Geta, who had accompanied their father, returned to Rome as colleagues in the supreme power.
In order to secure the sole authority, Caracalla barbarously murdered his brother in his mother's arms, and at the same time put to death some 20,000 persons, who were suspected of favouring him, amongst them the jurist Papinianus.
An important act of his reign (212) was the bestowal of the rights of Roman citizenship upon all free inhabitants of the empire, although the main object of Caracalla was doubtless to increase the amount of revenue derived from the tax on inheritances or legacies to which only Roman citizens were liable.
He entered the army, and under Caracalla rose to the rank of centurion.
It was at Edessa that Caracalla, who made it a military colony under the style of Colonia Marcia Edessenorum, spent the winter of 216-217, and near there that he was murdered.
Papinian tried to keep peace between the brothers, but with no better result than to excite the hatred of Caracalla, to which he fell a victim in the general slaughter of Geta's friends which followed the fratricide of A.D.
He made his first appearance in public life as assessor in the auditorium of Papinian and member of the council of Septimius Severus; under Caracalla he was master of the requests (magister libellorum).
After the extinction of the family of Augustus in the 1st century Gaul had made many emperorsGalba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Domitian; and in the 2nd century she provided Gauls to rule the empireAntoninus (138161) came from Nfmes and Claudius from Lyons, as did also Caracalla later on (211217).
The edict of Caracalla, at the beginning of the 3rd century, by conferring the right of citizenship on all the inhabitants of the empire, completed an assimilation for which commercial relations, schools, a taste for officialism, and the adaptability and quick intelligence of the race had already made preparation.
Amongst the numerous buildings with which Caracalla adorned the city, the most famous are the thermae, and the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus in the forum.
14; lives of Caracalla, Severus and Geta, in Scriptores Historice Augustae; Eutropius viii.