One of the gates is formed by the quadrifrontal arch of Caracalla, a rare form of construction.
The emperor Caracalla, wishing to make use of this civil war for a conquest of the East in imitation of his idol, Alexander the Great, attacked the Parthians in 216.
Under the constitution of Caracalla (198-217) all inhabitants of the Roman empire enjoyed the civil rights of the Cives Romani (Scherer, Die Rechtsverhaltnisse der Juden, p. Io).
At a later date, probably under Septimius Severus or Caracalla (beginning of 3rd century), Palmyra received the Jus italicum and the status of a colony; the executive officials of the council and people were called strategoi, equivalent to the Roman duumviri (NSI.
One of his chief objects was the abolition of distinctions between the provinces and the mother country, finally carried out by Caracalla, while at the same time he did not neglect reforms that were urgently called for in Italy.
215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city; and, in order to repay some insulting satires that the inhabitants had made upon him, he commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre was the result.
Heron de Villefosse, who has laid bare a beautiful temple of Jupiter, a triumphal arch of Caracalla, a Byzantine basilica and the gate of the Byzantine general Solomon.
He ornamented the city with baths, and surrounded the hippodrome with porticos; but it was not till the time of Caracalla that it was restored to its former political privileges.
The great courts of approach were not finished before the reigns of Caracalla and Philip. In commemoration, no doubt, of the dedication of the new sanctuaries, Severus conferred the jus Italicum on the city.
His successors, Caracalla and Severus Alexander (211-235), accepted the position, and many inscriptions refer to building or rebuilding executed by them for the greater efficiency of the frontier defences.
Of these the most famous is Philostratus "the Athenian," author of the Life of Apollonius Tyana, which he dedicated to Julia Domna, wife of Alexander Severus and mother of Caracalla (see Apollonius Of Tyana).
On the murder of Caracalla (217), Julia Maesa, Varius's grandmother and Caracalla's aunt, left Rome and retired to Emesa, accompanied by her grandsons (Varius and Alexander Severus).
Between him and his brother Caracalla there existed from their early years a keen rivalry and antipathy.
On the death of their father in 211 they were proclaimed joint emperors; and after the failure of a proposed arrangement for the division of the empire, Caracalla pretended a desire for reconciliation.
2; Spartianus, Caracalla, 2; Herodian iv.
Conflict with the emperor Caracalla in the year 213.
A road, the Via Ardeatina, led to Ardea direct from Rome; the gate by which it left the Servian wall was the Porta Naevia; a large tomb behind the baths of Caracalla lay on its course.
But of the praetorships with special jurisdiction (especially the ward praetorship and the liberation 1 [Until the time of Tiberius, when their election was transferred to the Senate.] [The age for the office was forty under the republic, thirty under the empire.] 3 [They took the place of the quaestors; this arrangement continued till the time of Claudius.] ' [The fiscal praetor (praetor fiscalis) was appointed by Nerva to hear claims preferred against the imperial fiscus.] Marquardt conjectures with much probability that when Caracalla extended the Roman franchise to the whole empire he at the same time abolished the foreign praetorship.
But while he gives a lively account of external events - such as the death of Commodus and the assassination of Pertinaxthe barbarian invasions, the spread of Christianity, the extension of the franchise by Caracalla are unnoticed.
Caracalla in 216 abolished the kingdom of Osroene (Dio Cass.
Caracalla made it a Roman colony, and later it became the capital of a small province, Phoenicia Libanesia or ad Libanum.