He adopted a plan which had been organiza- found to succeed well in Madeira and the Azores, tion in dividing the country into hereditary captaincies, and Sao Vicente Piratininga, in the present province of Sao Paulo.
Cattle and the sugar-cane were at an early period introduced from Madeira, and here the other captaincies supplied themselves with both.
Some time before the period at which these captaincies were established, a factory had been planted at Pernambuco.
Attempts were made about this time to establish two other captaincies, but without success.
The capital rose rapidly in importance, and the captaincies learned to regard it as a common head and centre of wealth.
Pornbal's arrangements extended also to the interior of the country, where he extinguished at once the now indefinite and oppressive claims of the original donatories of the captaincies, and strengthened and enforced the regulations of the mining districts.
In that year the coast was divided into captaincies, which were united under a single governor-general in 1549.
Espirito Santo formed part of one of the original captaincies which were given to Vasco Fernandes Coutinho by thePortuguese crown.
The state of Bahia includes four of the original captaincies granted by the Portuguese crown - Bahia, Paraguassu, Ilheos and Porto Seguro, all of which reverted to the direct control of that government in 1549.
It had been made the capital of the southern captaincies in 1680, and in 1762 it became the capital of all Brazil.
The coast of Maranhao was first discovered by Pinzon in 1500, but it was included in the Portuguese grant of captaincies in 1 534.
The navy is recruited by conscription in the coast or maritime districts, which are divided into three naval captaincies-general, those of Ferrol, Cadiz and Cartagenaat the head of each being a vice-admiral.
Diverse nature - protectorates such as Hormuz and Ternate in the Moluccas, colonies such as Goa and Madeira, captaincies under military rule such as Malacca, tributary states Rich as Kilwa, fortified factories as at Colombo and Cochin.
These two divisions, with a third known as North Castile, now rank as military districts or captaincies-general; but the term "North Castile," which covers the northern extremity of Old Castile, is not generally used.