In 1534 Jean de La Foret, a knight of St John of Jerusalem, came to Constantinople as first permanent French ambassador to the Porte, and in February 1 535 were signed the first Capitulations (q.v.) with France.
In spite of frequent causes of friction, good relations were maintained with Venice, through the influence of the sultana Safie, and the capitulations with the republic of St Mark were renewed in 1589.
Those with France were also renewed (July 6, 1581); and capitulations were signed for the first time with the grand duke of Tuscany (1578) and with England (1580).
Between France and Austria contracted in 1756; and these resulted in the signature of Capitulations, or a treaty of friendship and commerce (March 22, 1761).
By the Capitulations signed on the 28th of May 1740 on behalf of Sultan Mahmud I.
Until the 15th century they were numerous, and enjoyed free exercise of their religion, which was secured to them by capitulations and treaties.
Negotiations were opened in 157 9 with Queen Elizabeth through certain British merchants; in 1580 the first Capitulations with England were signed; in 1583 William Harebone, the first British ambassador to the Porte, arrived at Constantinople, and in 1593 commercial Capitulations were signed with England granting the same privileges as those enjoyed by the French.
These " capitulations " obliged the Coalition government to carry on a dualist policy, although the majority of its adherents became, by the general election of May 1906, members of the Kossuth or Independence party, and, as such, pledged to the economic and political separation of Hungary from Austria save as regards the person of the ruler.
With a few exceptions, laws cannot, owing to the Capitulations, be enforced against foreigners except with the consent of the powers.
This multiplicity of tribunals arises from the fact that, owing to the Capitulations, which apply to Egypt as part of the Turkish empire, foreigners are almost entirely exempt from the jurisdiction of the native courts.
This last obligation was, in virtue of the Capitulations, applicable to Egypt as part of the Ottoman empire.
In criminal cases, however, foreign consuls still exercised jurisdiction, but the main evil of the Capitulations rgime was the absence of any proper machinery for enacting laws applicable to the whole of the inhabitants of Egypt.
The Eastern Question, however, slumbered until, in 1851, the matter of the Holy Places was raised by Napoleon III., involving the whole question of the influence in Ottoman affairs of France under the capitulations of 1740 and of Russia under the treaty of 1774.
Military and naval commanders, for matters, such as truces, capitulations and cartels, which are necessarily confided to their discretion.
It was not till 1675 that, under the first capitulations signed with Turkey, English consuls were established in the Ottoman empire.
Rumania was to remain part of the Ottoman empire within the limits fixed by the capitulations and the treaty of Paris.
New capitulations were concluded with the sultan Ahmed I.
He immediately declared that election "capitulations," which cardinals had long been in the habit of affirming as rules of conduct for future popes, could affect a new pope only as counsels, not as binding obligations.
In virtue of old treaties, known as the Capitulations, foreigners enjoy to a large extent the rights of exterritoriality.
Without regaining that preponderance in the Levant which had been secured after the victory of Lepanto and before the civil wars, Marseilles still took an honorable place there, confirmed by the renewal in 1604 of the capitulations of Francis I.
The peace of Belgrade (September 1739) was, by its renewal -of the capitulations, a great material success for France, and a great moral victory by the rebuff to Austria and Russia.