His son, John Jacob Astor (1822-1890), was also well known as a capitalist and philanthropist, giving liberally to the Astor library.
Sheep-raising, involving larger holdings, less supervision and less labour, was preferred by the capitalist land-holder to the cultivation of the wheat, spelt, vines or olives which were the chief crops of the country.
In this way the fourth estate would be emancipated from the despotism of the capitalist, and a great step taken in the solution of the great " social question."
In that year a capitalist and promoter, J.
C. Carey, who attracts him both by his theory of value, which suggests an ultimate harmony of the interests of capitalist and labourer, and also by his doctrine of "national" political economy, which advocates protection on the ground that the morals and culture of a people are promoted by having its whole system of industry complete within its own borders.
At the congress of St-Etienne the difference developed into separation, those who refused all compromise with a capitalist government following Guesde, while the opportunists formed several groups.
OAKES AMES (1804-1873), American manufacturer, capitalist and politician, was born in Easton, Massachusetts, on the 10th of January 1804.
The remedy for this is the extension of factories and home industries; but European capital is difficult to obtain in India, and the native capitalist prefers to hoard his rupees.
The budget presented to the Reichstag by Prince B 610w, which laid new burdens upon the landed and capitalist classes, was fiercely opposed bytheAgrarians, and led to the break-up of the Liberal-Conservative bloc on whose support the chancellor had relied since the elections of 1906.
He ruled like a modern capitalist; placed his bribes like investments in the courts of his enemies; and, while draining the land of enormous sums, was pitiless toward the two productive portions of his realm, the country population and the artisans.
Being bound to pay a stated sum to the public authorities these publicani naturally aimed at extracting the largest possible amount from the unfortunate provincials, and, as they belonged to the Roman capitalist class, they were able to influence the provincial governors.
At the Trade Union Congress in 1887 he attacked the secretary, Mr. Broadbent, for supporting capitalist candidates at elections,: thus starting the campaign for Independent Labour representation which he brought into prominence in 1888 by contesting Mid-Lanark as an Independent Labour candidate.
We find in it, too, the same exclusive regard to the interest of the capitalist class, and the same identification of their interest with that of the whole nation, which are generally characteristic of his writings.
The idea of the active capitalist having any duties towards his employes never seems to occur to him; the labourer is, in fact, merely an instrument in the hands of the capitalist, a pawn in the game he plays.
CYRUS WEST FIELD (1819-1892), American capitalist, projector of the first Atlantic cable, was born at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, on the 30th of November 1819.
The result was that the population of Bombay increased rapidly; a special quarter was set apart for the banya, or capitalist, class of Hindus; while Parsees and Armenians flocked to a city where they were secure of freedom alike for their trade and their religion.