The provinces are divided into cantons and subdivided into communes.
Examples may perhaps occasionally still be found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated."
Aisne is divided into five arrondissements - St Quentin and Vervins in the north, Laon in the centre, and Soissons and CIA, teau-Thierry in the south - and contains 37 cantons and 841 communes.
2911 cantons and 36,222 communes.
Hence, even in countries where the Roman Church is established, such as Belgium, Italy, the Catholic states of Germany and cantons of Switzerland, most of the Latin republics of America, and the province of Quebec, and a fortiori where this Church is not established, there is now no discipline over the laity, except penitential, and no jurisdiction exercised in civil suits, except possibly the matrimonial questions of princes (of which there was an example in the case of the reigning prince of Monaco).
Aube is divided into 5 arrondissements with 26 cantons and 446 communes.
The ultimate cause of the predominant form of federal government may be the geographical diversity of the country.
By the departments of Savoie and Haute-Savoie and the Swiss cantons Geneva and Vaud.
Ain is divided into five arrondissements - those of Bourg and Trevoux in the west, and those of Gex, Nantua and Belley in the east; containing in all 36 cantons and 455 communes.
We have seen that this was the case at Athens; it was largely the case in the democratic cantons of Switzerland; indeed the nobility of Rome itself, after the privileges of the patricians were abolished, rested on no other foundation.
He extended his labours to the cantons of Neuchatel and Vaud.
He intervened in the French religious wars, and also fought with Bern and other Swiss cantons, and on the murder of Henry III.
The department has Chartres for its capital, and is divided into the arrondissements of Chartres, Chateaudun, Dreux and Nogent-le-Rotrou (24 cantons and 426 communes).
Their monotony is varied only by the fruitful river-valleys and poljes, or upland hollows, where the smaller towns and villages are grouped; the districts or cantons thus formed are walled round by a natural rampart of limestone.
For administrative purposes the immediate possessions of the sultan are divided into vilayets (provinces), which are again subdivided into sanjaks or mutessarifliks (arrondissements), these into kazas (cantons), and the kazas into nahies (parishes or communes).
The administration of kazas, or cantons, was usually entrusted to the cadis and the holders of the more important fiefs; the sanjaks, or departments, were ruled by alai beys or mir-i-livas (colonels or brigadiers), pashas with one horsetail; the vilayets, or provinces, by beylerbeys or mir-i-mirans (lord of lords), pashas with two horse-tails; these were all originally military officers, who, in addition to their administrative functions, were charged with the duty of mustering and commanding the feudal levies in war time.
Allier is divided into the arrondissements of Moulins, Gannat, Lapalisse and Montlugon (29 cantons, 321 communes).
It still survived in certain cantons of the Alps in the 5th century, and clung to life with more tenacity in its Eastern home.
The capital is Carcassonne, and the department is divided into the four arrondissements of Carcassonne, Limoux, Narbonne and Castelnaudary, with 31 cantons and 439 communes.
Leaving out of account the innumerable glacier streams that swell its volume above the Lake of Constance, the most important affluents to its upper course are the Wutach, the Alb and the Wiese, descending on the right from the Black Forest, and the Aar, draining several Swiss cantons on the left.
He was here practically at the meeting-point of four distinct jurisdictions - Geneva, the canton Vaud, Sardinia and France, while other cantons were within easy reach; and he bought other houses dotted about these territories, so as never to be without a refuge close at hand in case of sudden storms. At Les Delices he set up a considerable establishment, which his great wealth made him able easily to afford.
The native settlements consisted of pagi (cantons) containing a number of vici (villages), the majority of the large towns being of Roman origin.
The bishopric still exists, with jurisdiction over the Cantons of the Grisons, Glarus, Zurich, and the three Forest Cantons, as well as the Austrian principality of Liechtenstein.
The other, territorially distinct from it for reasons of statecraft, was the Temple of Roma and Augustus, to which the inhabitants of the 64 Gallic cantons in the three Roman provinces of Aquitania, Lugudunensis and Belgica - the so-called Tres Galliae - sent delegates every summer to hold games and otherwise celebrate the worship of the emperor which was supposed to knit the provincials to Rome.
Tegea was one of the most ancient cities of Peloponnesus; tradition ascribed its concentration (synoecism) out of eight or nine primitive cantons to a mythical king Aleus.
The bishop was a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, while his diocese was one of the largest in Germany, including (shortly before the Reformation) most of Baden and Wurttemberg, and 12 out of the 22 Swiss cantons (all the region on the right bank of the Aar, save the portions included in the diocese of Coire) - in it were comprised 350 monasteries, 1760 benefices and 17,000 priests.
There is a chamber of deputies with 48 members elected by the cantons (12 in number) for six years, half the body being elected every three years.
It is divided into three arrondissements (29 cantons, 292 communes) cognominal with the towns of Bourges, SaintAmand-Mont-Rond, and Sancerre, of which the first is the capital, the seat of an archbishop and of a court of appeal and headquarters of the VIII.
Some other towns, including Bern, followed Zurich's example, but the Forest cantons refused to accept the innovations.
From 1654 to 1658 Pell acted as Cromwell's political agent to the Protestant cantons of Switzerland.
The progress of the Reformation attracted the attention of all Switzerland, but there was a strong opposition to it, especially in the five Forest Cantons: Lucerne, Zug, Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden; and the Zurichers felt it necessary to form a league in its defence.
The impotence of Hyrcanus was so obvious that Gabinius proceeded to deprive him of all political power by dividing the country into five cantons, having Jerusalem, Gazara, Amathus, Jericho, and Sepphoris, as their capitals.
Luther was a patriotic German who was for ever bewailing the disintegration of the Fatherland; Zwingli was full of plans for confederations of Swiss cantons with South German cities, which could not fail to weaken the empire.
They belonged for several centuries to the three Swiss cantons which were masters of the town.
He further paved the way for the "Golden" or "Borromean" league formed in 1586 by the Swiss Catholic cantons of Switzerland to expel here tics if necessary by armed force.
There are five arrondissements, of which the chief towns are Rodez, capital of the department, Espalion, Millau, St Affrique and Villefranche, with 43 cantons and 304 communes.
CHAMOIS, the Franco-Swiss name of an Alpine ruminant known in the German cantons as Gemse, and to naturalists as Rupicapra tragus or R.
The kingdom is divided into nine provinces which are subdivided into 342 cantons and 2623 communes.
Berne), after the Grisons, the largest of the Swiss cantons, but by far the most populous, though politically Bern ranks after that of Zurich.
From 1803 to 1814 the canton was one of the six "Directorial" cantons of the Confederation.
In the Central Alps the chief event, on the northern side of the chain, is the gradual formation from 1291 to 1815 of the Swiss Confederation, at least so far as regards the mountain Cantons, and with especial reference to the independent confederations of the Grisons and the Valais, which only became full members of the Confederation in 1803 and 1815 respectively.
The attraction of the south was too strong for both the Forest Cantons and the Grisons, so that both tried to secure, and actually did secure, various bits of the Milanese.