It was not only significant that in the Concordia discordantium canonum ecclesiastical laws, whether from authentic or forged sources, were gathered together without regard to the existing civil law; of even greater eventual importance was the fact that Gratian taught that the contradictions of the canon law were to be reconciled by the same method as that used by theology to reconcile the discrepancies of doctrinal tradition.
The canons formed part of the Codex canonum used at Chalcedon in 451 and passed over into the later collections of East and West.
FRANCISCUS GRATIANUS, compiler of the Concordia di,s cordantium canonum or Decretum Gratiani, and founder of the science of canon law, was born about the end of the filth century at Chiusi in Tuscany or, according to another account, at Carraria near Orvieto.
Gratian's Concordia discordantium canonum, as he called his Decretum, was another strong influence, Lombard doing in a sense for theology what Gratian did for the canon law.
The names Bacchus (Bdi os, in use among the Greeks from the 5th 2 See the studies by Siegfried and Gelzer, Eusebii canonum epitome ex Dionysii Telmaharensis chronico petita (Leipzig, 1884), and von Gutschmid, Untersuchungen fiber die syrische Epitome der Eusebischen Canones (Stuttgart, 1886).
Towards the middle of the 6th century a Carthaginian deacon, Fulgentius Ferrandus, drew up a Breviatio canonum, 2 a methodical arrangement of the African collection, in the order of the subjects.
Collectio canonum Ecclesiae Hispanae (Madrid, 1808); reproduced in Migne, P.L.
He was a Camaldulensian monk of the convent of St Felix at Bologna, where he taught canon law, and published, probably in 1148, his treatise called at first Concordantia discordantium canonum, but soon known under the name of the Decretum.
- For the texts and collections: the dissertations of Dom Coustant, De antiquis canonum collectionibus, deque variis epistolarum Rom.
Editionibus (Paris, 1721); P. de Marca, De veteribus collectionibus canonum (Paris, 1681); the brothers Peter and Jerome Ballerini, De antiquis turn editis turn ineditis collectionibus et collectoribus canonum ad Gratianum usque (Venice, 1757).
Berardi, De variis sacrorum canonum collectionibus ante Gratianum (Turin, 1752); P. Quesnel, De codice canonum Ecclesiae Romanae; de variis fidei libellis in antiquo Rom.
Codice contentis; de primo usu codicis canonum Dionysii Exigui in Gallicanis regionibus (Paris, 1675; with the critical notes of the brothers Ballerini, also in Migne, loc. cit.); and finally, Florent, De methodo atque auctoritate collectionis Gratiani (Paris, 1679), and Antonio Agustin, archbishop of Tarragona, De emendatione Gratiani (Tarragona, 1586); these have all been brought together in Gallandi, De vetustis canonum collectionibus dissertationurn sylloge (Venice, 1778).
At most all that was asked was whether those decretals which did not appear in the Liber canonum (the collection of Dionysius Exiguus, accepted in France) had the force of law, but Pope Nicholas having answered that all the pontifical letters had the same authority (see Deer.
Theiner, De pseudo-Isidoriana canonum collectione (Breslau, 1827); at Mainz, the brothers Ballerini, De antiquis collectionibus et collectoribus canonum, iii.
Canonum Isidori Mercatoris (Naples, 1760); Wasserschleben, Beitrcige zur Geschichte der falschen Dekretalen (Breslau, 1844); in the province of Reims: V¦-eizsacker, "Die pseudoisidorianische Frage," in the Histor.