Here the metacarpals and metatarsals have partially united to form cannonbones, the skull has assumed the elongated form characteristic of modern camels, with the loss of the first and second pairs of upper incisors, and the development of gaps in front of and behind each of the next three teeth, that is to say, the third incisor, the canine and the first cheek-tooth.
The isolated canine-like premolar which follows in the camels is not present.
The primitive Artiodactyla thus probably had the typical number (44) of incisor, canine and molar teeth, brachyodont molars, conical odontoid process, four distinct toes on each foot, with metacarpal, metatarsal and all the tarsal bones distinct, and no frontal appendages.
The canine teeth are proportionately longer than in any other living cat.
As regards classification, the first group is that of the Pecora, or Cotylophora, in which the cheek-teeth are selenodont, but there are no upper incisors or canine-like premolars, Pecora.
The cheek-teeth are selenodont, and one pair of upper incisors is retained, while some of the anterior premolars assume a canine-like shape, and are separated from the rest of the cheekseries.
Both sexes are devoid of antler appendage; but in this the musk-deer agrees with one genus of true deer (Hydrelaphus), and as in the latter, the upper canine teeth of the males are long and sabre-like, projecting below the chin, with the ends turned somewhat backwards.
There is, however, a minute upper canine developed at first, which is early shed; and in extinct forms this tooth was FIG.
The canine was like a premolar, and in contact with the first tooth of that series; and the cheek-teeth were short-crowned, with the premolar simpler than the molars, and a third lobe to the last lower tooth of the latter series.
The upper jaw is apparently destitute of incisor and canine teeth, but possesses five molars on each side, with a corresponding number in the jaw beneath.
Another important feature is that the lower canine has a cleft or two-lobed crown, so that it is unlike the incisors to which it is approximated.
In the deer-tribe, or Cervidae, the lower canine, as in the two following families, is simple and similar to the incisors.
- Skull of Chinese Water-Deer, Hydrelaphus inermis (adult male), a Deer without Antlers, but with largely developed upper canine teeth.
In the upper jaw there is a compressed, sharp-pointed, tusk-like incisor near the hind edge of the premaxilla, followed in the male at least by a moderate-sized, pointed, curved canine in the anterior part of the maxilla.
Next to the latter is a curved, sub-erect canine, followed after an interval by an isolated minute and often deciduous simple conical premolar; then a contiguous series of one premolar and three molars, which differ from those of recent species of Camelus in having a small accessory column at the anterior outer edge.
In the skull the socket of the eye is surrounded by bone; while the dentition begins to approximate to the camel type - notably by the circumstance that the lower canine is either separated by a gap from the outermost incisors, or that its crown assumes a backwardly curved shape.
The most characteristic dental feature is, however, the assumption of the form and function of a canine by the first lower premolar; the lower canine being incisor-like.
In the lower jaw the incisors and canines are directed straight forwards, and are of small size and nearly similar form; the function of the canine being discharged by the first premolar, which is larger than the other teeth of the same series.
Unlike the early horses, the later premolars are as complex as the molars; and although there is a well-marked gap between the canine and the premolars, there is only a very short one between the former and the incisors.
A second venture proved to be a little more encouraging, although again there was a loss; but in April 1873, the Kennel Club, which is now the governing body of the canine world, was founded by S.
Several weekly papers published on the continent of Europe devote a considerable portion of their space to dogs, and canine journals have been started in America, South Africa and even India: while apart from Lee's volumes and other carefully compiled works treating on the dog in general, the various breeds have been written about, and the books or monographs have large sales.
There is usually a short gap between the canine and first premolar; the upper molars are short-crowned and transitional between the bunodont (tubercular) and selenodont (crescentic) types, with two outer concave tubercles and two inner conical ones; while the lower molars are crescentic, with three lobes in the last of the series..
The absence of a gap between the lower canine and first premolar and between the latter and the following tooth is regarded as an essentially tapir-like feature.
Lower incisors diminishing in size from the first to the third; the canine, which is in contact with the third incisor, large and conical, working against (and behind) the canine-like third upper incisor.
With the exception of the first lower premolar, the dentit i on is complete; the incisors being normal, but the canine rudimentary, and the last upper molar distinctly triangular.
There were two types of canine divinities in Egypt, their leading representatives being respectively Anubis and Ophois (W p-w;-wt, " opener of the ways"): the former type is symbolized by the recumbent animal the other by a similar animal (in a stiff standing attitude), carried as an emblem on a standard in war or in religious processions.
Rodents may be characterized as terrestrial, or in some cases arboreal or aquatic, placental mammals of small or medium size, with a milk and a permanent series of teeth, plantigrade or partially plantigrade, and generally five-toed, clawed (rarely nailed or semi hoofed) feet, clavicles or collar-bones (occasionally imperfect or rudimentary), no canine teeth, and a single pair of lower incisors, opposed by only one similar and functional pair in the upper jaw.
On the other hand, the American forms, which have one pair of large chisel-like incisors in the lower jaw, also possess a lower canine, and show no marked gap in front of the cheek-teeth, nor any indication of the characteristic rodent backwards movement of the lower jaw.
Pecora, or true ruminants as they may be conveniently called, have complex stomachs and chew the cud; they have no upper incisor teeth; and the lower canines are approximated to the outer incisors in such a manner that the three incisors and the one canine of the two sides collectively form a continuous semicircle of four pairs of nearly similar teeth.
Man differs from them in the absence of a hairy coat; in the development of a large lobule to the external ear; in his fully erect attitude; in his flattened foot with the non-opposable great toe; in the straight limb-bones; in the wider pelvis; in the marked sigmoid flexure of his spine; in the perfection of the muscular movements of the arm; in the delicacy of hand; in the smallness of the canine teeth and other dental peculiarities; in the development of a chin; and in the small size of his jaws compared to the relatively great size of the cranium.
The same canine disease results in South Africa from the bite of Haemaphysalis leachi.
At three years the second and third premolars, and the third molar have appeared, at from three and a half to four years the second incisor, at four to four and a half years the canine, and, finally, at five years, the third incisor, completing the permanent dentition.
Of the five teeth between the incisors and molars the most anterior, or the one usually situated close behind the premaxillary suture, very generally assumes a lengthened and pointed form, and constitutes the " canine " of the Carnivora, the tusk of the boar, &c. It is customary, therefore, to call this tooth, whatever its size or form, the " canine."