Artificial props of several kindswires, cane work, trellis work, &c.are also in use in many districts (in the neighborhood of Rome canes are almost exclusively employed), and in some the plant is permitted to trail along the ground.
Bark provides material for string, while baskets and mats are neatly and stoutly made from canes and buckets out of bamboo and wood.
In the persecuting activity that ensued the Dominicans, "the Dogs of the Lord" (Domini canes), took the lead., Commissaries of the Holy Office were sent into different provinces, and ministers of the faith were established in the various cities to take cognisance of the crimes of heresy, apostasy, sorcery, sodomy and polygamy, these three last being considered to be implicit heresy.
Sugar-canes suffer from the sugar cane borer (Diatioca sacchari) in the West Indies; tobacco from the larvae of hawk moths (Sphingidae) in America; corn and grass from various Lepidopterous pests all over the world.
The sugar cane, like tea, was first introduced in 1850, the first canes being brought from Mauritius.
Besides rice, the products of the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and jute are cultivated to a minor extent.
Owing to this property, tubes or canes can be produced with a square, oblong, oval or triangular section.
Exceedingly fine canes of milk-white glass play an important part in the masterpieces produced by the Venetian glass-makers of the 16th century.
The canes from which the patterns are formed are either simple or complex.
The canes adhere to the molten glass, and the mass is first twisted and then drawn out into fine cane, which contains white threads arranged in endless spirals.
The process can be almost indefinitely repeated and canes formed of extreme complexity.
A vase decorated with these simple or complex canes is produced by embedding short lengths of the cane on the surface of a mass of molten glass and blowing and fashioning the mass into the required shape.
The glasses to which the Venetians gave the name " mille fiori " were formed by arranging side by side sections of glass cane, the canes themselves being built up of differently coloured rods of glass, and binding them together by heat.
The shoots are trained up near the glass, and, with plenty of heat (top and bottom) and of water, with air and light, and manure water occasionally, will form firm, strong, well-ripened canes in the course of the season.
The value of sugar-canes at a given plantation or central factory would at first sight appear to vary directly as the amount of saccharine contained in the juice expressed from them varies, Sugar-canes.
And if canes with juice indicating 9° Beaume be made a basis of value or worth, say at ios.
Per ton, then canes with juice indicating in degrees Beaume to° 9° 8° 7° 6° and containing in sugar..
Ii/14 to/- 8/102 7/94 6/8 But this is not an accurate statement of the commercial value of sugar-canes - that is, of their value for the production of sugar to the planter or manufacturer - because a properly equipped and balanced factory, capable of making ioo tons of sugar per day, for ioo days' crop, from canes giving juice of 9° B., or say Io,000 tons of sugar, at an aggregate expenditure for manufacture (i.e.
The annual cost of running the factory) of £3 per ton, or f30,000 per annum, will not be able to make as much sugar per day with canes giving juice of 8° B., and will make still less if they yield juice of only 6° B.
In practice, the expenses of upkeep for the year and of manufacturing the crop remain the same whether the canes are rich or poor and whether the crop is good or bad, the power of the factory being limited by its power of evaporation.
For example, a factory able to evaporate 622 tons of water in 24 hours could treat I 000 tons of canes yielding juice of 9° B., and make therefrom too tons of sugar in that time; but this same factory, if supplied with canes giving juice of 6° B., could not treat more than 935 tons of canes in 24 hours, and would only make therefrom 62.2 tons of sugar.
The canes in each case are assumed to contain 88% of juice and 12% of fibre, and the extraction by milling to be 75% of the weight of canes - the evaporative power of the factory being equal to 622 tons per 24 hours.
But it is obvious that it would not pay a planter to sell canes at 4s.
Hence arises the imperative necessity of good cultivation by the planter, and of circumspection in the purchase and acceptance of canes on the part of the manufacturer.
The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of sugar from beetroots differ, but there are five operations in the production of the sugar of commerce from either material which are common to both processes.
The juice is extracted from canes by squeezing them between rollers.
In India at the present day there are thousands of small mills worked by hand, through which extraction the peasant cultivators pass their canes two or three at a time, squeezing them a little, and extracting per haps a fourth of their weight in juice, from which they make a substance resembling a dirty sweetmeat rather than sugar.
In Barbadoes there are still many estates making good Mascabado sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windmills, and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, the financial results are disastrous, since nearly half the yield obtainable from the canes is lost.
In the best organized modern cane sugar estates as much as 122% of the weight of the canes treated is obtained in crystal sugar of high polarizing power, although in Louisiana, where cultivation and manufacture are alike most carefully and admirably carried out, the yield in sugar is only about 7% of the weight of the canes, and sometimes, but seldom, as much as 9%.
This is due to conditions of climate, which are much less favourable for the formation of saccharine in the canes than in Cuba.
Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
This mill is guaranteed to crush thoroughly and efficiently from 250 to 300 tons of canes in 24 hours.
Per minute (or 60% more than that of the French mill described above), and they are efficiently crushing 900 to 1200 tons of canes in 24 hours.
Passing the canes through three consecutive sets of rollers, in order to extract everything possible of extraction by pressure) is employed.
In the south of Spain, in some favoured spots where sugar-canes can be grown, they are submitted even to four successive crushings.
It has been found in practice advantageous to prepare the canes for crushing in the mills, as above described, by passing them through a pair of preparing rolls which are grooved or indented in such manner as to draw in and flatten down the canes, no matter in which way they are thrown or heaped upon the canecarrier, and thus prepare them for feeding the first mill of the series; thus the work of crushing is carried on uninterruptedly and without constant stoppages from the mills choking, as is often the case when the feed is heavy and the canes are not prepared.
Whatever pressure be brought to bear upon it, the vegetable or woody fibre of crushed sugar-canes will hold and retain for the from moment a quantity of moisture equal to its own weight, Yield .
Canes vary very much in respect of the quality and also as to the quantity of the juice they contain.
It shows the greatest quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made hereafter.
The British Guiana Planters' Association appointed a sub-committee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture of sugar, who stated the following: With canes containing 12% fibre the following percentages of sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: Single crushing 76% Double crushing 85% Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% Triple crushing with Io% dilution.
Great improvements have been made in the means of feeding the mills with canes by doing away with hand labour and substituting mechanical feeders or rakes, which by means of a simple steam-driven mechanism will rake the canes from the cane waggons on to the cane-carriers.
By the adoption of this system in one large plantation in the West Indies, crushing upwards of 1200 tons of canes per day, the labour of sixty-four hands was dispensed with, and was thus made available for employment in the fields.
With a view of safeguarding themselves from breakdowns caused by the inequality of feeding, or by the action of malicious persons introducing foreign substances, such as crowbars, bolts, &c., among the canes, and so into the mills, many planters have adopted socalled hydraulic attachments, applied either to the megass roll or the top roll bearings.
These attachments, first invented by Jeremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patent Journal in 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into the side or top caps of the mill, and pressing against the side or top brasses in such a manner as to allow the side or top roll to move away from the other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any desired extent, keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough to lift the top roll from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it from the megass roll, so that the megass will not be as well pressed as it ought to be;' and an objection to the side cap arrangement on the megass roll as well as to the top cap arrangement is, that in case more canes are fed in at one end of the rolls than at the other, the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; and though it may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it is apt, in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels by putting them out of line with one another.
With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
The moment the juice is expelled from the cells of the canes chemical inversion commences, and the sooner it is stopped the better.
In Java and Mauritius, where very clean canes are grown, double-bottomed defecators are generally used, and to them, perhaps as much as to the quality of the canes, may be attributed the very strong, fine sugars made in those islands.
To make this apparatus more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lime has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that once the proportion has been determined no allowance is made for the variation in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owing to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mills, it is obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automatic arrangement from time to time as it is to vary in each separate direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, which he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satisfying himself with testing the juice once or twice in a watch.
With the juice of some canes considerable difficulty is encountered in keeping the heating surfaces of the evaporators clean and free from incrustations, and cleaning by the use of acid has to be resorted to.
Of the 178 factories at work in Java in 1908-1909, nearly all had most efficient plant for treating the excellent canes grown in that favoured island.