The smaller plain, or rather slope, adjoining Canea and the valley of Alikianu, through which the Platanos (ancient Iardanos) flows, are of great beauty and fertility.
Respectively of the Kophino range; the Platanos, which flows northwards from the White Mountains into the Bay of Canea; and the Mylopotamo (ancient Qaxes) flowing northwards from Psiloriti to the sea E.
The Moslem element predominated in the principal towns, of which the population was - Candia, 21,368; Canea, 13,812; Retimo, 9274.
Canea (Xavia), the seat of government since 1840 (pop. 20,972), is built in the Italian style; its walls and interesting galley-slips recall the Venetian period.
Retimo (PEOvyvos) is, like Canea, the see of a bishop (pop. 9 3 11).
There are two assize courts at Canea and Candia respectively with jurisdiction in regard to serious offences (KaKOvpy17aaia).
When in 1821 the revolution broke out in continental Greece, the Cretans, headed by the Sphakiots, after a massacre at Canea at once raised the standard of insurrection.
Serious disturbances broke out at Canea on the 24th of May, and were only quelled by the arrival of foreign warships.
Affairs were brought to a climax by a series of conflicts which took place at Canea on the 4th of February; the Turkish troops fired on the Christians, a conflagration broke out in the town, and many thousands of Christians took refuge on the foreign warships in the bay.
The Greek government now despatched an ironclad and a cruiser to Canea, which were followed a few days later by a torpedo flotilla commanded by Prince George.
The prince soon retired to Melos, but on the night of the 14th of February a Greek expeditionary force under Colonel Vassos landed at Kolymbari, near Canea, and its commander issued a proclamation announcing the occupation of the island in the name of King George.
On the 26th of that month the nomination of Prince George of Greece as high commissioner of the powers in Crete for a period of three years (renewed in 1901) was formally announced, and on the 21st of December the prince landed at Suda and made his public entry into Canea amid enthusiastic demonstrations.
The powers, however, reiterated their decision to maintain the status quo, and increased their military and naval forces; the Greek flag was hauled down at Canea and Candia, and some desultory engagements with the insurgents took place, the international troops co-operating with the native gendarmerie.
Venezelo and his followers, having obtained an amnesty, laid down their arms. A commission appointed by the powers to report on the administrative and financial situation drew up a series of recommendations in January 1906, and a constituent assembly for the revision of the constitution met at Canea in the following June.
In J u d y 1909, however, the Greek flag was hoisted in Canea and Candia, and it was only lowered again after the war-ships of the protecting powefs had been reinforced and had landed an international force.
CANEA, or KHANIA, the principal seaport and since 1841 the capital of Crete, finely situated on the northern coast of the island, about 25 m.
From its western extremity, on the isthmus of the Akrotiri peninsula, which lies between the Bay of Canea and the Bay of Suda (latitude 35° 31' N., longitude 24° i' E.).
His father, a merchant of Canea, took an active part in the Cretan patriotic movement and was therefore exiled by the Turks in 1866, but returned to the island in 1872.
Returning to Canea, he took up the practice of law, but, like most Cretan lawyers of that day, he soon was drawn into political life.
In the insurrection of 1889 he was compelled to fly from the island and take refuge in Greece; after tranquillity was restored, he returned and was elected a member for Canea to the Cretan Assembly.
Many of these found their way to Crete, and becoming porters, &c. in Canea and Candia, were notorious for turbulence and fanaticism.
Canea probably occupies the site of the ancient Cydonia, a city of very early foundation and no small importance.