De Candolle as probably a modification of A.
Eng., ac), a word found, variously modified, in all Germanic languages, and applied to plants of the genus Quercus, natural order Fagaceae (Cupuliferae of de Candolle), including some of the most important timber trees of the north temperate zone.
Casimir de Candolle has made an independent investigation, based on Hooker and Benthams Genera plantarum.
De Candolle, however, points out, exclusive reliance on this may be misleading unless we also take into account the character and affinities of the plants dealt with (Geogr.
C. de Candolle finds that with one exception the species belong to genera represented in one or other of the Indian peninsulas.
De Candolle have pointed out, it is insignificant as compared with the outgoing one.
De Candolle, La Geographie botanique raisonne, (Paris and Geneva, i855); A.
The word "pear" or its equivalent occurs in all the Celtic languages, while in Slavonic and other dialects different appellations, but still referring to the same thing, are found - a diversity and multiplicity of nomenclature which led Alphonse de Candolle to infer a very ancient cultivation of the tree from the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atlantic. A certain race of pears, with white down on the under surface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of Perry (see Cider).
De Candolle 3 observes that it was not cultivated by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the ancient Greeks and the Romans.
As to the origin of the peach two views are held, that of Alphonse de Candolle, who attributes all cultivated varieties to a distinct species, probably of Chinese origin, and that adopted by many naturalists, but more especially by Darwin, who looks upon the peach as a modification of the almond.
On the other hand, Alphonse de Candolle, from philological and other considerations, considers the peach to be of Chinese origin.
Xenophon makes no mention of the peach, though the Ten Thousand must have traversed the country where, according to some, the peach is native; but Theophrastus, a hundred years later, does speak of it as a Persian fruit, and De Candolle suggests that it might have been introduced into Greece by Alexander.
Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 158) points out that the epoch of its introduction into different countries agrees with the idea that its origin was in India, Cochin-China or the Malay Archipelago, and regards it as most probable that its primitive range extended from Bengal to Cochin-China.
One of the early supporters of this natural method was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), who in 1813 published his Theorie elementaire de la botanique, in which he showed that the affinities of plants are to be sought by the comparative study of the form and development of organs (morphology), not of their functions (physiology).
The work was continued after his death, by his son Alphonse de Candolle, with the aid of other eminent botanists, and embraces descriptions of the genera and species of the orders of Dicotyledonous plants.
The system followed by de Candolle is a modification of that of Jussieu.
Endlicher (1804-1849), the Prodromus of de Candolle, and the Vegetable Kingdom (1846) of J.
Among the scientific celebrities were de Saussure, the most many-sided of all; de Candolle and Boissier, the botanists; Alphonse Favre and Necker, the geologists; Marignac, the chemist; Deluc, the physicist, and Plantamour, the astronomer.
Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 325) suggests that the plant originally grew wild in the countries to the south of the Caucasus and to the north of Persia.
This fact, joined to other considerations, induced Alphonse de Candolle to consider rice as a native of China.
De Candolle, arguing from its ancient cultivation and the antiquity of the Sanskrit and Hebrew names, regards it as a native of western Asia.
De Candolle, " Sur les causes de l'inegale distribution des plantes rares dans la chaine des Alpes," Extr.
P. de Candolle introduced several improvements into the system.
Humboldt, Alphonse de Candolle and others, however, do not hesitate to say that it originated solely in America, where it had been long and extensively cultivated at the period of the discovery of the New World; and that is the generally accepted modern view.
(De Candolle, Origin of Cultivated Plants.) The cultivation and preparation of flax are among the most ancient of all textile industries, very distinct traces of their existence during the stone age being preserved to the present day.
Alphonse de Candolle (Geographic botanique, p. 798) informs us that several botanists of Paris, Geneva, and especially of Montpellier, have sown the seeds of many hundreds of species of exotic hardy plants, in what appeared to be the most favourable situations, but that in hardly a single case has any one of them become naturalized.
De Candolle (Origine des Plantes cultivees, p. 40) is equally emphatic in the opinion that it is S.