Newfoundland, the West Indies, and the Falklands, and the chief oceanic islands are the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Ascension, St Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Bouvet Island.
Torreya, now confined to North America and Japan, still lingered,- as did Ocotea, now profusely developed in the tropics, but in north temperate regions only existing in the Canaries: the evergreen oaks, so characteristic of the Miocene, were reduced to the existing Quercus hex.
It includes the Azores and Canaries, the Mediterranean basin, northern Africa as far as the Atlas and Sahara, Asia Minor, Persia and the countries eastward as far as Sind, being bounded to the north by the mountains which run from the Caucasus to the Hindu-Kush.
Such are the date in Mesopotamia (a second species of Phoenix occurs in the Canaries); most European fruits, e.g.
This flora extends from Ireland to the Canaries and reappears on the highlands of Angola.
The islands of the Canaries, Madeira and the Azores belong to the Mediterranean province, and offer some peculiarities of great interest.
From the fact that turnstones may be met with at almost any season in various parts of the world, and especially on islands as the Canaries, Azores, and many of those in the British seas, it has been inferred that these birds may breed in such places.
A very old tradition suggests that the idea of such an earthly paradise was a reminiscence of some unrecorded voyage to Madeira and the Canaries, which are sometimes named Fortunatae Insulae by medieval map-makers.
It is known as a winter visitant to Egypt and Abyssinia, and is abundant at all seasons in Barbary, as well as in the Canaries and Madeira.
Berthelot, Histoire naturelle des ties Canaries (Paris, 1839); Paul Broca, Revue d'anthropologie, iv.
Soc. Anthrop. Paris, 1878; " Habitations et sepultures des anciens habitants des Iles Canaries," Revue d'anthrop., 1879; R.
Verneau, " Sur les Semites aux Iles Canaries," and " Sur les anciens habitants de la Isleta, Grande Canarie," Bull.
Soc. Anthrop. Paris, 1881; Rapport sur une mission scientifique dans l'archipel canarien (Paris, 1887); Cinq annees de sejour aux Iles Canaries (Paris, 1891); H.
Dom Enrique, Infante of Portugal, surnamed the Navigator (1394-1460) transported it about 1420, from Cyprus and Sicily to Madeira, whence it was taken to the Canaries in 1503, and thence to Brazil and Hayti early in the 16th century, whence it spread to Mexico, Cuba, Guadeloupe and Martinique, and later to Bourbon.
Both these species are extensively cultivated for their fruit in Southern Europe, the Canaries and northern Africa; and the fruits are not unfrequently to be seen in Covent Garden Market and in the shops of the leading fruiterers of the metropolis.
These shells do not retain their individuality at depths greater than 1400 or 1500 fathoms, and in fact pteropod ooze is only found in small patches on the ridges near the Azores, Antilles, Canaries, Sokotra, Nicobar, Fiji and the Paumotu islands, and on the central rise of the South Atlantic between Ascension and Tristan d'Acunha.
Sempervivum has about so species in the mountains of central and southern Europe, in the Himalayas, Abyssinia, and the Canaries and Madeira; S.
There are also hooped or bowed canaries, feather-footed forms and top-knots, the latter having a distinct crest on the head; but the offspring of two such top-knotted canaries, instead of showing an increased development of crest, as might be expected, are apt to be bald on the crown.
In a state of nature canaries pair, but under domestication the male bird has been rendered polygamous, being often put with four or five females; still he is said to show a distinct preference for the female with which he was first mated.
Like "Brazil," it dates from a period anterior to the discovery of the New World, "Antilia," as stated above, being one of those mysterious lands, which figured on the medieval charts sometimes as an archipelago, sometimes as continuous land of greater or lesser extent, constantly fluctuating in mid-ocean between the Canaries and East India.
The island was variously identified with America, Scandinavia, the Canaries and even Palestine; ethnologists saw in its inhabitants the ancestors of the Guanchos, the Basques or the ancient Italians; and even in the 17th and 18th centuries the credibility of the whole legend was seriously debated, and sometimes admitted, even by Montaigne, Buffon and Voltaire.
Domesticated goats have run wild in many islands, such as the Hebrides, Shetland, Canaries, Azores, Ascension and Juan Fernandez.
The Canary (Serinus canaries) is indigenous to the islands whence it takes its name, as well, apparently, as to the neighbouring groups of the Madeiras and Azores, in all of which it abounds.
Wallace; Canaries and Cage Birds, by W.
The French claim that between 1364 and 1410 the people of Dieppe sent out several expeditions to Guinea; and Jean de Bethencourt, who settled in the Canaries about 1402, made explorations towards the south.
This was a Genoese expedition, which about 1270 seems to have sailed into the Alantic, re-discovered the "Fortunate Islands" or Canaries, and made something of a conquest and settlement in one of the most northerly isles of this archipelago, still known (after the Italian captain) as Lanzarote.
Canaries, p. 177; M.
The position of mountainous islands like the Canaries, in the subtropical division of the temperate zone, is highly favourable to the development, within a small space, of plants characteristic of both warm and cold climates.
The Guanches, who occupied the Canaries at the time of the Spanish invasion, no longer exist as a separate race, for the majority were exterminated, and the remainder intermarried with their conquerors.
Owing to the richness of the volcanic soil, agriculture in the Canaries is usually very profitable.
In 1854 all the ports of the Canaries were practically declared free; but on the 1st of November 1904 a royal order prohibited foreign vessels from trading between one island and another.
Both Plutarch and Ptolemy speak of the Fortunate Islands, but from their description it is not clear whether the Canaries or one of the other island groups in the western Atlantic are meant; see Isles Of The Blest.
In the 12th century the Canaries were visited by Arab navigators, and in 1334 they were rediscovered by a French vessel driven among them by a gale.
In December 1406 he left the Canaries, entrusting their government to his nephew Maciot de Bethencourt, and reserving for himself a share in any profits obtained, and the royal title.
In 1479 the sovereignty of Ferdinand and Isabella over the Canaries was established by the treaty of Alcagova, between Portugal and Castile.
- For a general description of the islands, see Les L'es Canaries, by J.
See also Histoire naturelle des Iles Canaries, by P. Barker-Webb and S.
Berthelot (Paris, 1835-1849); and "Les Iles Canaries et les parages de peche canariens," by Dr. A.
It is the best-built port of the sultanate and is generally second in point of trade, which is carried on mainly with Marseilles, London, Gibraltar and the Canaries, the principal exports being almonds, goat-skins, gums and olive-oil, and the principal imports cotton goods, sugar and tea.
Unable to carry out his project of conquest, he left his men at the Canaries and went to seek help at the court of Castile.
Returning to the Canaries in 1404 he found that Gadifer de la Salle had conquered Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, and explored other islands.
La Salle, unwilling to accept a position of inferiority, left the Canaries and appealed unsuccessfully for redress at the court of Castile.
Turf-cutting, coarse lace-making and the breeding of canaries and native song-birds also occupy many of the people.
Lanzarote, the most easterly of the Canaries, has a length of 31 m.
'' and that from there its cultivation extended in very early times to the Canaries on the west and to China on the east.
In 1424-1425 Prince Henry attempted to purchase the Canaries, and began the colonization of the Madeira group, both in Madeira itself and in Porto Santo; to aid this latter movement he procured the famous charters of 1430 and 1433 from the Portuguese crown.
In 1445-1446, again, Dom Henry renewed his earlier attempts (which had failed in 1424-1425) to purchase or seize the Canaries for Portugal; by these he brought his country to the verge of war with Castile; but the home government refused to support him, and the project was again abandoned.