Gezer and Taanach, for example, are said to have remained in the hands of Canaanites (Judges i.
But when the nomadic clans of Israel came to occupy the settled abodes of the agricultural Canaanites who had a stake in the soil which they cultivated, these conditions evidently reacted on their religion.
Hai], a small royal city of the Canaanites, E.
The Canaanites in general are called Kharu.
She is everywhere the great female principle, answering to the Baal of the Canaanites and Phoenicians 2 and to the Dagon of the Philistines.
Whether it was derived from the Canaanites, who had similar festivals (Judges xxix.
The statements are obscure, and elsewhere Hormah is the scene of a victory over the Canaanites by Israel (Num.
8), and the interchange of the ethnic with "Canaanites" and "Amorites" suggests that the Amalekites are merely one of Israel's traditional enemies of the older period.
A brief description of how the Egyptians were punished through the very things with which they sinned (though the punishment was not fatal, for God loves all things that exist), and how judgments on the Canaanites were executed gradually (so as to give them time to repent), is followed by a dissertation on the origin, various forms, absurdity and results of polytheism and idolatry (xiii.-xv.): the worship of natural objects is said to be less blameworthy than the worship of images - this latter, arising from the desire to honour dead children and living kings (the Euhemeristic theory), is inherently absurd, and led to all sorts of moral depravity.
It is assumed that the former arose during the pastoral period of Israelite history before or during the stay in Egypt, while the latter was adopted from the Canaanites after the settlement in Palestine.
A Catholic commentator of the 16th century, Hieronymus ab Oleastro, seems to have been the first to connect the name " Jehova " with howah interpreting it contritio, sive pernicies (destruction of the Egyptians and Canaanites); Daumer, adopting the same etymology, took it in a more general sense: Yahweh, as well as Shaddai, meant " Destroyer," and fitly expressed the nature of the terrible god whom he identified with Moloch.
Friedrich Delitzsch brought into notice three tablets, of the age of the first dynasty of Babylon, in which he read the names of Yaa'-ve-ilu, Ya-ve-ilu, and Ya-u- um -ilu (" Yahweh is God "), and which he regarded as conclusive proof that Yahweh was known in Babylonia before 2000 B.C.; he was a god of the Semitic invaders in the second wave of migration, who were, according to Winckler and Delitzsch, of North Semitic stock (Canaanites, in the linguistic sense).'
The origin of this particular form of worship can scarcely be sought in Egypt; the Apis which was worshipped there was a live bull, and image-worship was common among the Canaanites in connexion with the cult of Baal and Astarte (qq.v.).
It is most probable that they obtained it through the mediation either of the Canaanites or of the North Arabians.
Further speculation is caused when it is found that Solomon fortifies such cities as Megiddo, Beth-horon and Tamar, and that the Egyptian Pharaoh had slain the Canaanites of Gezer (ix.
That the name of 17w was borrowed from the Canaanites appears certain, for that out of the multiplicity of words for soothsayers and the like common to Hebrew and Arabic (either formed from a common root or expressing exactly the same idea - '?Y'!', ' arraf; :h, habir; nisi, r i, hazi; p op, cf.
With the prosperity of the nation, and especially through the absorption of the Canaanites and of their holy places, ritual had become much more elaborate, and in royal sanctuaries at least there were regular public offerings maintained by the king and presented by the priests (cf.
In the rich territory of Issachar, traversed by the great commercial highway from the Mediterranean and Egypt to Bethshean and the Jordan, were several important towns which remained in the hands of the Canaanites for some time (Judges 1.27), separating the tribe from Manasseh.
But we know that there were nebhiim among the Canaanites; the "prophets" of Baal appear in the history of Elijah as men who sought to attract their god by wild orgiastic rites.
Is not arranged upon strict ethnographic principles; perhaps religious antagonism induced the Hebrews to assign to the Canaanites an ancestry different from their own; at any rate the close connexion which existed from an early date between the Phoenicians and the Egyptians may have suggested the idea that both peoples belonged to the same race.
By settling along the Syrian coast they developed a strangely un-Semitic love for the sea, and advanced on different lines from the other Canaanites who occupied the interior.
They called themselves Canaanites and their land Canaan; such is their name in the Amarna tablets, Kinahhi and Kinahni; and with this agrees the statement assigned to Hecataeus (Fr.
And his successors the coins of Laodicea of Libanus bear the legend " Of Laodicea which is in Canaan "; 1 the Old Testament also sometimes denotes Phoenicia and Phoenicians by " Canaan " and " Canaanites " (Isa.
89), 4 So the Babylonians, Canaanites (e.g.
Like the Canaanites of whom they formed a branch, the Phoenicians connected their religion with the great powers and The processes of nature.'
The god or goddess was generally called the Ba'al or Ba'alath of such and such a place, a title which was used not only by the Canaanites, but by the Aramaeans (Be`el) and Babylonians (Bel) as well.
Probably like other Canaanites the Phoenicians offered worship " on every high hill and under every green tree "; but to judge from the allusions to sanctuaries in the inscriptions and else- sacred where, the Ba'al or `Ashtart of a place was usually worshipped at a temple, which consisted of a court or W o rshi p. enclosure and a roofed shrine with a portico or pillared hall at the entrance.
The Biblical usage appears to show that the terms "Canaanites" and "Amorites" were used synonymously, the former being characteristic of Judaean, the latter of Ephraimite and Deuteronomic writers.
A distinction is sometimes maintained, however, when the Amorites are spoken of as the people of the past, whereas the Canaanites are referred to as still surviving.
Yet, apart from the references to cultic prostitution (which was adopted by the Israelites from the Canaanites), the mention of the vice in question is not frequent; in a polygamous society and in a country without great cities it was not likely to grow to great proportions.
According to the highly intricate introduction the Hebrews were oppressed: (a) to familiarize them with warfare - it is assumed that they had intermarried with the Canaanites and worshipped their gods (iii.
21, and the successors of Jeroboam 2), attacks by nomads and wars with Ammon and Moab; conflicts between newly settled Israelites and indigenous Canaanites have been suspected in the story of Abimelech, and it is not impossible that the post-Deuteronomic writer who inserted ch.
8) where the Canaanites were routed.