On the highlands, however, which contain extensive open campos, the climate, though dry and hot, is considered healthy.
The Seriema inhabits the campos or elevated open parts of Brazil, from the neighbourhood of Pernambuco to the Rio de la Plata, extending inland as far as Matto Grosso (long.
On the 13th of February 1880, the minister of war, Dr Carlos Pellegrini, summoned the principal officers connected with the Tiro Nacional, General Bartolome Mitre, his brother Emilio, Colonel Julio Campos, Colonel Hilario Lagos and others, and warned them that as officers of the national army they owed obedience to the national government, and would be severely punished if concerned in any revolutionary outbreak against the constituted authorities.
In October 1900 Dr Manuel Campos Salles, president of Brazil, paid a visit to Buenos Aires, and was received with great demonstrations of friendliness.
Cluding bush-forest in Africa and campos serrados in Brazil P
The open campos afford good pasturage, and live stock is largely exported.
The mean annual temperature is about 85° in the Sao Francisco valley, 77° on the campos of the S.E., and 70° on the campos of the W.
There is much malaria in the wooded districts of the east and on the higher campos, where the daily extremes of temperature are great, lung and bronchial diseases are common.
Agriculture and grazing have become the main dependence of the population - the former in the lower, forested region of the south-east, where coffee and sugar-cane - are the principal products, and the latter on the higher campos and river valleys, and on the mountain slopes, where large herds of cattle are to be found, and milk, butter and cheese are produced.
Barely eight months after the restoration of the Bourbons in the autumn of 1875, Sagasta accepted the new state of things, and organized the Liberal dynastic party that confronted Canovas and the Conservatives for five years in the Cortes, until the Liberal leader used the influence of his military allies, Jovellar, Campos and others, to induce the king to ask him to form a Cabinet in 1881.
Intervention by the United States seemed probable, but did not come, and after alternations in the fortunes of war, Martinez Campos in January 1878 secured the acceptance by the rebels of the convention (pacto) of Zanjon, which promised amnesty for the war, liberty to slaves in the rebel ranks, the abolition of slavery, reforms in government, and colonial autonomy.
It is a stony, semi-arid region, thinly wooded, having good grazing campos in its extreme western section.
Its Atlantic slopes are heavily wooded, but the western slopes exhibit grass-covered campos between the river courses.
It has extensive campos and large areas of exposed rock and stony steppes, but is richly provided with mineral deposits.
It resembles the Sao Francisco region in its uncertain rainfall and exposure to droughts, and in having large areas of campos suitable for grazing purposes.
Its chapadas are covered with extensive campos, its shallow valleys with open woodlands, and its deeper valleys with heavy forests.
O r C eiro do Itapemirim f Campos borga 34 Greenwich EmeryWalker sc.
Above these they are less regular and are attracted northward by the heated llanos of Venezuela in winter, or southward by the heated campos of Matto Grosso in summer.
It is not uncommon to find once cultivated fields abandoned because of their ravages and to see large campos completely covered with enormous ant-hills.
The Amazon region has a comparatively narrow frontage on the Atlantic. In Maranhao, which belongs to the coast region, open spaces or campos appear, though the state is well wooded and its forests have the general characteristics of the lower Amazon.
Then come the catinga tracts, and, beyond these, the open campos of the elevated plateau, dotted with clumps of low growing bushes and broken by tracts of carrasco, a thick, matted, bushy growth 10 to 12 ft.
Of the great inland region, which includes the arid campos of the north, the partially-wooded plateaus of Minas Geraes, Goyaz and Matto Grosso, the temperate highlands of the south, and the tropical lowlands of the Paraguay basin, no adequate description can be given without taking each section in detail, which can be done to better advantage in describing the individual states.
Goats have been found highly profitable in many of the middle Atlantic states, where the long dry seasons render the campos unsuitable for cattle pasturage.
The remainder of the presidency of Dr Moraes was uneventful; and on the 15th of November 1898 he was succeeded by Dr Campos Salles, who had previously been governor of the state of Sao Paulo.
The difficulties in the reorganization of the finances of the state, which Dr Campos Salles had to face on his accession to Reforms power, were very great.
President Campos Salles entered upon his tenure of office on the 15th of November 1898, and at once proceeded to initiate fiscal legislation for the purpose of reducing expenditure and increasing the revenue.
The chief feature of the administration of Dr Campos Salles was the statesmanlike ability with which various disputes with foreign powers on boundary questions were seriously taken in hand and brought to a satisfactory and pacific settlement.
Dr Campos Salles had signalized his administration, not only by the settlement of disputes with European powers, but by efforts to arrive at a good understanding with the neighbouring South American republics.
In October 1900 Dr Campos Salles returned the visit and met with an excellent reception at Buenos Aires.
At the end of the year, when Marshal Serrano left Madrid to take command of the northern army, General Martinez Campos, who had long been working more or less openly for the king, carried off some battalions of the central army to Sagunto, rallied to his own flag the troops sent against him, and entered Valencia in the king's name.
It once included the municipality of Campos, now belonging to the state of Rio de Janeiro.
Cattle-raising was once the principal industry in the interior, but has been almost extinguished by the devastating droughts and increasing aridity caused by the custom of annually burning over the campos to improve the grass.
After Marshal Campos had failed to pacify Cuba, the Conservative government of Canovas del Castillo sent out Weyler, and this selection met the approval of most Spaniards, who thought him the proper man to crush the rebellion.
Maciot thereupon sold his office to her envoy, Pedro Barba de Campos; sailed to Lisbon and resold it to Prince Henry the Navigator; and a few years afterwards resold it once more to Enrique de Guzman, count of Niebla.
After the victory at Concon the insurgent army, under command of General Campos, marched in a southerly direction towards Villa del Mar, and thence to Placilla, where the final struggle in the conflict took place.
He selected his generals without respect of politics, sending Moriones to the Basque provinces and Navarre at the head of 20,000 men, Martinez Campos to Catalonia with several thousand, and Lopez Dominguez, the nephew of Marshal Serrano, to begin the land blockade of the last stronghold of the cantonal insurgents, Cartagena, where the crews of Spain's only fleet had joined the revolt.
Castelar kept apart from active politics during the twelve months that Serrano acted as president of the republic. Another pronunciamiento finally put an end to it in the last week of December 1874, when Generals Campos at Sagunto, Jovellar at Valencia, Primo de Rivera at Madrid, and Laserna at Logrono, proclaimed Alphonso XII.
Paspalum, is a large tropical genus, most abundant in America, especially on the pampas and campos; many species are good forage plants, and the grain is sometimes used for food.
By far the greater part of the table-land, however, is anything but fertile, the principal exceptions being the Tierra de Campos, said to be the chief corn-growing district in Spain, occupying the greater part of Palencia in the north-west of Old Castile, and the Tierra de Barros, in the portion of Badajoz lying to the south of the Guadiana in Estremadura.
General Martinez Campos caused him to be proclaimed king at Murviedro by a brigade of troops, and the example there set was followed everywhere.
The Alphonsist armies, led by Marshals Campos and Jovellar, swept the Carlist bands from the right hank of the Ebro to the Pyrenees, and took their last strongholds in the eastern provinces, Cantavieja and Seo de Urgel.
Insurrec- Idarshal Jovellar was sent out to Havana as governorthin, general, with Marshal Martinez Campos as commander-in-chief of the forces.
Marshal Campos, who very soon succeeded Jovellar as governor-general of Cuba, for the first time held out to the loyalists of the island the prospect of reforms, fairer treatment at the hands of the mother country, a more liberal tariff to promote their trade, and self-government as the crowning stage of the new policy.
Marshal Campos was not allowed to carry out his liberal and conciliatory policy, which the reactionary party in the colony, ci partido espanol, resented as much as their allies in the Peninsula.
Canovas ruled his own coalition of Conservatives and Catholics with an iron hand, managing the affairs of Spain for six years with only two short interruptions, when he stood aside for a few months, just long enough to convince the king that the Conservative party could not retain its cohesion, even under such men as Marshals Jovellar and Campos, if he did not choose to support them.
Doa Maria Christina calmly presided over this solemn council, listening to the advice of Marshal Campos, always consulted in every great crisis; of Captain-General Pavia, who answered for the loyalty of the capital and of its garrison; of the duke de Sexto, the chief of the household; of Marshal Blanco, the chief of the military household; and of all the members of the cabinet and the presidents of the Senate and Congress assembled in the presence of the queen, the ex-queen Isabella, and the Infanta Isabella.
All looked chiefly to Marshal Campos and Canovas del Castillo for statesmanlike and disinterested advice.
Marshals Campos, Jovellar and Novaliches, and Generals Pavia, Primo de Rivera, Daban and others, wereangry with Sagasta and the Liberals not only because they deemed their policy too democratic, but because they ventured to curb the insubordinate attitude of general officers, who shielded themselves behind the immunities of their senatorial position to.
Public opinion was instantly fired, and the pres~ called so loudly for revenge that the government sent to Melilli no less a personage than Marshal Campos, at the head of 2(generals and 25,000 men.
Marshal Campos, on returning from Cuba in 1879, bad advocated some concessions to satisfy the legitimate aspirations of the majority of the colonists.
A very few days after he assumed office Canovas received information concerning the spread of the rising in Cuba which induced him to send out Marshal Campos with 30,000 men.
He allowed Marshal Campos much liberty of action, but dissented from his views on the expediency of allowing him to offer the loyalists of Cuba as much home rule as would not clash with the supremacy of Spain.
Before a year had passed, in view of the signal failure of Marsha] Campos, the Madrid government decided to send out General Weyler, who bad made himself famous in the Philippines and at Barcelona for his stern and cruel procedure against disaffection of every kind.
Like Marshal Concha, marquis del Duero, he would have preferred to let events develop enough to allow of the dynasty being restored without force of arms, and he severely blamed the conduct of the generals when he first heard of the pronunciamiento of Marshal Campos at Sagunto.
He formed a regency ministry pending the arrival of his majesty, who confirmed his appointment, and for six years Canovas was premier except during the short-lived cabinets of Marshal Jovellar in 1875 and Marshal Campos for a few months in 1879.
ARSENIO MARTINEZ DE CAMPOS (1831-1900), Spanish marshal, senator and knight of the Golden Fleece, was born at Segovia on the 14th of December 1831.
On his return to the Peninsula, the Federal Republican government in 1873 confided to General Campos several high commands, in which he again distinguished himself against the Cantonal Republicans and the Carlists.
Though Campos made no secret of his designs, Marshal Serrano,in 1874, appointed him to the command of a division which took part in the relief of Bilbao on the 2nd of May of that year, and in the operations around Estella in June.
On both occasions General Campos tried in vain to induce the other commanders to proclaim Alphonso XII.
After the death of King Alphonso, Campos steadily supported the regency of Queen Christina, and held high commands, though declining to take office.