Tea and camphor are the staple exports.
[The movements of camphor scrapings referred to above afford a useful test of the condition of a water surface.
A similar cement is a mixture of dried fresh curd with i nth of its weight of quicklime and a little camphor; it is made into a paste with water when employed.
Lord Rayleigh has shown that the fall of surface-tension begins when the quantity of oil is about the half of that required to stop the camphor movements, and he suggests that this stage may correspond with a complete coating of the surface with a single layer of molecules.] On the Forms of Liquid Films which are Figures of Revolution.
In 1755 Menghini published an elaborate study of the action of camphor on a great variety of different kinds of animals.
The Malays also work jungle produce, of which the most important are gutta, rattans, agila wood, camphor wood, and the beautiful kamuning wood which is used by the natives for the hilts of their weapons.
Among the principal varieties are those which contain carbolic acid and other ingredients of coal tar, salicylic acid, petroleum, borax, camphor, iodine, mercurial salts, sulphur and tannin.
The vegetation of the island is characterized by tropical luxuriance, - the moutainous regions being clad with dense forest, in which various species of palms, the camphor-tree (Laurus Camplaora), and the aloe are conspicuous.
This work led naturally to the synthesis of many terpenes and members of the camphor group; also to the investigation of various alkaloids and natural colouring matters.
Pepper, nutmegs and cloves were long the objects of the most important branch of Dutch commerce; and gutta-percha, camphor, dammar, benzoin and other forest products have a place among the exports.
The produce of the Eastern Islands is also collected at its ports for re-exportation to India, China and Europe - namely, gold-dust, diamonds, camphor, benzoin and other drugs; edible bird-nests, trepang, rattans, beeswax, tortoiseshell, and dyeing woods from Borneo and Sumatra; tin from Banka; spices from the Moluccas; fine cloths from Celebes and Bali; and pepper from Sumatra.
The English dye for seals is to-day undoubtedly the best; its constituents are more or less of a trade secret, but the principal ingredients comprise gall nuts, copper dust, camphor and antimony, and it would appear after years of careful watching that the atmosphere and particularly the water of London are partly responsible for good and lasting results.
It may be synthetically prepared by the fusion of cymol sulphonic acid with caustic potash; by the action of nitrous acid on 1-methyl-2-amino-4-propyl benzene; by prolonged heating of 5 parts of camphor with r part of iodine; or by heating carvol with glacial phosphoric acid.
To-day Labuan chiefly exists as a trading depot for the natives of the neighbouring coast of Borneo, who sell their produce - beeswax, edible birds-nests, camphor, gutta, trepang, &c., - to Chinese shopkeepers, who resell it in Singapore.
Many of the roots and vegetables of Europe have been introduced, as well as some of those peculiar to the tropics, including maize, millet, yams, manioc, dhol, gram, &c. Small quantities of tea, rice and sago, have been grown, as well as many of the spices (cloves, nutmeg, ginger, pepper and allspice),' and also cotton, indigo, betel, camphor, turmeric and vanilla.
Gutta-percha (getah percha in the vernacular), camphor, cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs, gambir and betel, or areca-nuts, are all produced in the island; most of the tropical fruits flourish, including the much-admired but, to the uninitiated, most evil-smelling durian, a large fruit with an exceedingly strong outer covering composed of stout pyramidal spikes, which grows upon the branches of a tall tree and occasionally in falling inflicts considerable injuries upon passers-by.
The motion of small pieces of camphor floating on water arises from the gradual solution of the camphor.
If the hoop enclose an area of (say) one-third of the maximum, and if the water be clean, camphor fragments floating on the interior enter with vigorous movements.
Be less toxic. Glycothymolin is a proprietary preparation, used in the treatment of catarrhal conditions of mucous membranes, while a mixture of naphthalene, camphor and thymol is sold under the name of thymolin.
Para-xylene is obtained when camphor is distilled with zinc chloride, but it is best prepared from para-brom-toluene or dibrombenzene, methyl iodide and sodium.
It is a liquid which boils at 146.3-148° C. and possesses a strong camphor odour.
The galls produced at the ends of the branches have been used in medicine, and the wood yields cedar-camphor and oil of cedar-wood.
A curious fact, which may be used for the detection of the minutest quantity of oils and fats, is that camphor crushed between layers of paper without having been touched with the fingers rotates when thrown on clean water, the rotation ceasing immediately when a trace of oil or fat is added, such as introduced by touching the water with a needle which has been passed previously through the hair.
An ascent made by Dr Honda of the imperial university of Japan showed that, up to a height of 6000 ft., the mountain is clothed with primeval forests of palms, banyans, cork trees, camphor trees, tree ferns, interlacing creepers and dense thickets of rattan or stretches of grass higher than a man's stature.
Camphor, sugar, tea, indigo, ground peanuts, jute, hemp, oil and rattans are all articles of export.
The grateful perfumed powder abir or rand y is composed either of rice, flour, mango bark or deodar wood, camphor and aniseed, or of sandalwood or wood aloes, and zerumbet, zedoary, rose flowers, camphor and civet.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains a watery solution - the Aqua Chloroformi - which is useful in disguising the taste of nauseous drugs; a liniment which consists of equal parts of camphor liniment and chloroform, and is a useful counter-irritant; the Spiritus Chloroformi (erroneously known as "chloric ether"), which is a useful anodyne in doses of from five to forty drops; and the Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, which is the equivalent of a proprietary drug called chlorodyne.
It is a product of the action of heat on many organic compounds, being formed when the vapours of ether, camphor, acetic acid, ethylene, acetylene, &c., are passed through a red-hot tube (M.
If this takes place more rapidly on one side of the piece of camphor than on the other side, the surface-tension becomes weaker where there is most camphor in solution, and the lump, being pulled unequally by the surface-tensions, moves off in the direction of the strongest tension, namely, towards the side on which least camphor is dissolved.
The thickness of the film of oil adequate to check the camphor movements can be determined with fair accuracy by depositing a weighed amount of oil (such as 8 mg.) upon the surface of water in a large bath.
Conditions of a contaminated surface may easily be distinguished, upon all of which camphor fragments spin vigorously.
And yet the greasing may be so slight that camphor fragments move with apparently unabated vigour.
The following results have been obtained Clean 74.o Greasy to the point where camphor motions nearly cease 53.o Saturated with olive oil 41.0 Saturated with sodium oleate 25 o (Phil.
Agilawood, the camphor tree, and ebony are also found in smaller quantities.
Sequoia and the tulip-tree still remain; figs are abundant; laurels are represented by Sassafras and camphor; herbaceous plants (Ranunculaceae, Cruciferae, Umbelliferae) are present, though, as might be expected, only fragmentarily preserved.
Buchu leaves contain a volatile oil, which is of a dark yellow colour, and deposits a form of camphor on exposure to air, a liquid hydro-carbon being the solvent of the camphor within the oil-glands.
But some of the most valuable products of the island, as camphor and rattan, are to be found in the upland forests, and the Chinese, whenever they ventured too far in search of these products, fell into ambushes of hill-men who neither gave nor sought quarter, and who regarded a Chinese skull as a specially attractive article of household furniture.
If the plants are subjected to some process, before mounting, by which injurious organisms are destroyed, such as exposure in a closed chamber to vapour of carbon bisulphide for some hours, the presence of pieces of camphor or naphthalene in the cabinet will be found a sufficient preservative.
If parts of the design are to be in relief, they are built up with a putty of black lacquer, white lead, camphor and lamp-black.
About 15% of a volatile oil is obtained by distilling cubebs with water; after rectification with water, or on keeping, this deposits rhombic crystals of camphor of cubebs, C 15 H 26 O; cubebene, the liquid portion, has the formula C15HV4.
At present the manufacture of artificial camphor may be considered a solved problem, although it is doubtful whether such camphor will be able to compete in price with the natural product in the future.
The Laurineae were plentiful, and include various true laurels, camphor-trees, cinnamon, Persea and Sassafras.
The various camphors, such as laurel camphor, Borneo camphor, menthol and cumarin, are oxidized derivatives of essential oils, and differ only superficially from them in their action.
The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.
Small as is the above amount of oil, the camphor test is a comparatively coarse one.
It is, however, part of the personal history of Abd-ar-rahman that when in 763 he was compelled to fight at the very gate of his capital with rebels acting on' behalf of the Abbasids, and had won a signal victory, he cut off the heads of the leaders, filled them with salt and camphor and sent them as a defiance to the eastern caliph.
Olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the "camphor laurel" of China and Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the Indian Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China; elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gumdragon or dragon's blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago, Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation); star anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the Hindus, much used for incense in India.