Gamal), the name of the single-humped Arabian Camelus dromedaries, but also applied to the two-humped central Asian C. bactrianus and to the extinct relatives of both.
Dr Leche also institutes a comparison between the skeletons of the wild and the tame Bactrian camel with the remains of certain fossil Asiatic camels, namely, Camelus knoblochi from Sarepta, Russia, and C. alutensis from the Aluta valley, Rumania.
This comparison leads to the important conclusion that the wild Bactrian Camelus bactrianus ferus comes much nearer to the fossil species than it does to the domesticated breed, the resemblance being specially noticeable in the absolutely and relatively small size of the last molar.
On the under side of the free edge of the mantle are situated the numerous small cutaneous glands which, in the large A plysia camelus (not in other species), form the purple secretion which was known to s the ancients.
Camelus of Cuvier.
- A plysia leporina (camelus, Cuv.), with epipodia and mantle reflected away from the mid-line.
The euthyneurous visceral loop is long, and presents only one ganglion (in Aplysia camelus, but two distinct ganglia joined to one another in Aplysia hybrida of the English coast), placed at its extreme limit, representing both the right and left visceral ganglia and the third or abdominal ganglion, which are so often separately present.
Genera: Camelus, Moschus, Cervus, Capra, Ovis, Bos.
Of the two existing generic representatives of the Camelidae (as the family in which they are both included is named), the Old World camels (Camelus) are characterized by their great bodily size, and the presence of one or two fleshy humps, which diminish or increase in size according to the physical condition of the animals themselves.
Next to the latter is a curved, sub-erect canine, followed after an interval by an isolated minute and often deciduous simple conical premolar; then a contiguous series of one premolar and three molars, which differ from those of recent species of Camelus in having a small accessory column at the anterior outer edge.
The skull generally resembles that of Camelus, the relatively larger brain-cavity and orbits and less developed cranial ridges being due to its smaller size.
- As regards the past history of the group, remains of fossil species of Camelus have been obtained from the superficial deposits of various parts of Russia, Rumania, and Siberia, and others from the Lower Pliocene of northern India; the molar teeth of these latter presenting the additional column referred to above as distinguishing those of the llamas from those of modern camels.
Possibly this Russian camel (Procamelus khersonensis), as it is called, may form the connecting link between the typical Procamelus of North America and the fossil camel (Camelus sivalensis) of the Siwalik Hills of India.
A more curious case is that of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius), a beast only known in domestication, and that in arid countries; yet a number of these have become feral in the Spanish marshes, where they wade about like quadrupedal flamingoes.
Crrpov0LWV or o .47as a-rpov06s); the Struthio camelus of Linnaeus, and the largest of living birds, an adult male standing nearly 8 ft.
Wolf, of the male Struthio camelus; J.