The traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek authors, come from two different sources.
Away in the East Cyrus had been succeeded in 529 B.C. by Cambyses, who had annexed Egypt and on whose death in 522 a Magian impostor, Gaumata, had seized the throne.
Thus, when Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, made his great expedition against Egypt, with the fleets of Phoenicia and Cyprus and with the camels of the Arabians, it is highly probable that Palestine itself was concerned.
In 530, having appointed his son Cambyses king of Babel, he set out for a new expedition against the East.
Before Cambyses set out to Egypt, he secretly caused him to be murdered (Darius in the Behistun Inscr.
Owing to the despotic rule of Cambyses and his long absence in Egypt, "the whole people, Persians, Medes and all the other nations," acknowledged the usurper, especially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years (Herod.
Cyrus, Cambyses and Darius.
The Ecbatana at which Cambyses is said by Herodotus (iii.
Now we know that Cyrus was buried at Pasargadae and if there is any truth in the statement that the body of Cambyses was brought home " to the Persians " his burying-place must be sought somewhere beside that of his father.
2 On the place of Palestine in Persian history see Persia: History, ancient, especially § 5 ii.; also Artaxerxes; Cambyses; Cyrus; Darius, &C.
Indeed, it was claimed that Cambyses had left the sanctuary unharmed but had destroyed the temples of the Egyptians.
2 In addition to this, the Egyptian story of the priest Uza-hor at the court of Cambyses and Darius reflects a policy of religious tolerance which illustrates the biblical account of Ezra and Nehemiah (Brugsch, Gesch.
Cyrus The Great, the founder of the Persian empire, was the son of Cambyses I.
And Cambyses I., "kings of Anshan," and the same title is given to him in the inscriptions and in the chronicle of Nabonidus of Babylon before his victory over Astyages.
Cambyses began to march against him, but seeing that his cause was hopeless, killed himself in the spring of 521 (but see further Cambyses).
The history of the false Smerdis is narrated by Herodotus and Ctesias according to official traditions; Cambyses before his death confessed to the murder of his brother, and in public explained the whole fraud.
Hutaosa is the same name as Atossa: but in history Atossa was the wife of Cambyses and Darius.
A public mourning followed, which lasted six days, and Cambyses accompanied the corpse to the tomb.
A year before his death, in 529 B.C., he associated his son Cambyses in the government, making him king of Babylon, while he reserved for himself the fuller title of " king of the (other) provinces " of the empire.
538 Cambyses, his son.
Only crude brick ruins and rubbish heaps remain on the site, but a few relics conveyed to Alexandria and Europe in the Roman age have come down to our day, notably the inscribed statue of a priest of Neith who was high in favour with Psammetichus III., Cambyses and Darius.
Against the supposition that the names refer to Cambyses and Pseudo-Smerdis who reigned after Cyrus and before Darius, see H.
It is more probable that the breach of the compact was due to Polycrates, for when Cambyses of Persia invaded Egypt (525) the Samian tyrant offered to support him with a naval contingent.
This squadron never reached Egypt, for the crews, composed as they were of Polycrates' political enemies, suspecting that Cambyses was under agreement to slay them, put back to Samos and attacked their master.
In the time of Cambyses Arabs were settled at Jenysos south of Gaza (Herod.
Cyrus left Egypt unmolested; but the last years of Amasis were disturbed by the threatened invasion of Cambyses and by the rupture of the alliance with Polycrates of Samos.
After the death of Cambyses, the younger line of the Achaemenidae came to the throne with Darius, the son of Hystaspes, who was, like Cyrus, the great-grandson of TeIspes.
Of the Persians, however, not even Darius is traceable at Thebes; on the other hand, there is no support for the tradition that Cambyses destroyed its monuments.
It is generally ~ believed that the successes gained in the time of the Pharaohs were due to foreign legions; and from Cambyses to Alexander, from the Ptolemies to Antony (Cleopatra), from Augustus to the 7th century, throughout the Arab period, and from Saladins dynasty down to the middle of the I3th century, the military power of Egypt was dependent on mercenaries.
A few months after his death, 525 B.C., the invading host of the Persians led by Cambyses reached Egypt and dethroned his son Psammetichus III.
Cambyses at first conciliated the Egyptians and respected their religion; but, perhaps after the failure of his expedition into Ethiopia, he enti~ely changed his policy, and his The memory was generally execrated.
Xerxes, 486467 B.C., who put down the revolt with severity, and his successor Artaxerxes, 466425 B.C., like Cambyses, were hateful to the Egyptians.
The inscriptions of Pefteuauneit, priest of Neith at Sais, and from his position the native authority who was most likely to be consulted by, Cambyses and Darius, tells of his relations with these two kings.
7 sqq.), and only returned - laden with spoils, images captured from Egypt by Cambyses, and captives (Jerome on Daniel loc. cit.) - to put down a domestic rebellion.
The oasis was traversed by the army of Cambyses when on its way to the oasis of Ammon (Siwa), the army perishing in the desert before reaching its destination.
The first name is that of Theagenes of Rhegium, contemporary of Cambyses (525 B.C.), who is said to have founded the " new grammar " (the older " grammar " being the art of reading and writing), and to have been the inventor of the allegorical interpretations by which it was sought to reconcile the Homeric mythology with the morality and speculative ideas of the 6th century B.C. The same attitude in the " ancient quarrel of poetry and philosophy " was soon afterwards taken by Anaxagoras; and after him by his pupil Metrodorus of Lampsacus, who explained away all the gods, and even the heroes, as elementary substances and forces (Agamemnon as the upper air, &c.).
Here the sequence of the reigns in the Biblical writer and in the profane historians - in the one, Cyrus, Ahasuerus, Artaxerxes, Darius; in the other, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius - led in the past (Ewald, &c.) to the identification of Ahasuerus with Cambyses (529-522 B.e.), son of Cyrus.
The annexation of Egypt by Cambyses of Persia in 525 B.C.
High), which recounts the way in which, after the death of Cambyses, he killed the usurper Gaumata (in Justin Gometes, the pseudo-Smerdis), defeated the numerous rebels, and restored the kingdom of the Achaemenidae.
The Persian Empire of the Achaemenids.The balance, however, was disturbed in 553 B.C., when the Persian Cyrus, king of Anshan in Elam (Susiana), revolted against Conques~ his suzerain Astyages, the son of Cyaxares, and o, Cynis three years later defeated him at Pasargadae ~i and Shortly afterwards Astyages was taken prisoner, Cambyses, Ecbatana reduced, and the Median Empire replaced by thi Persian.
The east of Iran was further subdued, and, after Cyrus met his end (528 B.C.) in a war against the eastern Nomads (Dahae, Massagetae), his son Cambyses conquered Egypt (525 B.C.).
Within the empire, the two great civilized states incorporated by Cyrus and Cambyses, Babylon and Egypt, occupied a position of their own.
After his defeat of Nabonidus, Cyrus ~ proclaimed himself King of Babel; and the same title was born by Cambyses, Smerdis and Darius.
So, in Egypt, Cambyses adopted in full the titles of the Pharaohs.
Though, unlike Cyrus and Cambyses, Darius made no new expeditions of conquest, yet a great empire, which is not bounded The wars by another equally great, but touches on many small against tribes and independent communities, is inevitably Greece.
2 For example, Cambyses, son of Cyrus, was undoubtedly co-regent and bore the title "king of Babylon" during his father's lifetime, but, in a contract which dates from the first year of Cambyses, it is expressly stated that Cyrus was still "king of the lands."
(464-404 B.C.), reveal the existence of a colony of Jews, with a temple to Yahu (Yahweh, Jehovah), which had been founded at some time before the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses in 523 B.C. They also mention the great frontier garrison against the Ethiopians, referred to by Herodotus.
On a tablet dated from the first year of Cyrus, Cambyses is called king of Babel.
But his authority seems to have been quite ephemeral; it was only in 53 0, when Cyrus set out on his last expedition into the East, that he associated Cambyses on the throne, and numerous Babylonian tablets of this time are dated from the accession and the first year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was "king of the countries" (i.e.
After the death of his father in the spring of 528 Cambyses became sole king.
Here Cambyses is made the legitimate son of Cyrus and a daughter of Apries (Herod.
560 D, this tradition is corrected by the Persians: Cambyses wants to marry a daughter of Amasis, who sends him a daughter of Apries instead of his own daughter, and by her Cambyses is induced to begin the war.) His great crime is the killing of the Apis, for which he is punished by madness, in which he commits many other crimes, kills his brother and his sister, and at last loses his empire and dies from a wound in the hip, at the same place where he had wounded the sacred animal.
Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who 1 On the much discussed tablet, which is said to date from his 1 ith year, the writer had at first written "loth year of Cyrus," and then corrected this date into "1st year of Cambyses"; see Strassmaier, Inschriften von Cambyses, No.
In the Persian tradition the crime of Cambyses is the murder of his brother; he is further accused of drunkenness, in which he commits many crimes, and thus accelerates his ruin.
With the exception of Babylonian dated tablets and some Egyptian inscriptions, we possess no contemporary evidence about the reign of Cambyses but the short account of Darius in the Behistun inscription.
It is impossible from these sources to form a correct picture of Cambyses' character; but it seems certain that he was a wild despot and that he was led by drunkenness to many atrocious deeds.
It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered Asia, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the only remaining independent state of the Eastern world.
Cambyses had prepared for the march through the desert by an alliance with Arabian chieftains, who brought a large supply of water to the stations.
The Egyptian inscriptions show that Cambyses officially adopted the titles and the costume of the Pharaohs, although we may very well believe that he did not conceal his contempt for the customs and the religion of the Egyptians.
From Egypt Cambyses attempted the conquest of Ethiopia (Cush), i.e.
Cambyses attempted to march against him, but, seeing probably that success was impossible, died by his own hand (March 521).