Wood thus altered is known as heart-wood, or duramen, as distinguished from the young sap-wood, or alburnum, which, forming a cylinder next the cambium, remains alive and carries on the active functions of the xylem, particularly the conduction of water.
The activity of the new cambium is often associated with the stoppage of the original one.
Such meristematic layers are called secondary meristems. There are two chief secondary meristems, the cambium and the phellogen.
The in Stems. bundles of plants which form cambium are, on the contrary, called open.
The operation must be so performed that the growing tissues, or cambium-layer of the scion, may fit accurately to the corresponding layer of the stock.
It has been recently shown that several cambium-zones may remain in a state of activity, so that the formation of a new cambium does not necessarily FIG.
In favourable cases remains of the cambium are found on the outer border of the wood, and phloem is also present in the normal position, though it does not seem to have attained any considerable thickness.
The primary structure f ` is only found unaltered in the 1 1, 1 ` by means of a cambium set in very Il 111/1/1, 1 1 early, xylem being formed internally and phloem externally in a perfectly normal manner.
Primary phloem can be recognized with certainty in favourable cases, the question of the formation of secondary phloem by the cambium is not yet fully cleared up. In the Lepidodendron fuliginosum of Williamson, shown by its leaf-bases to have been a Lepidophloios, the secondary wood is very irregular, and consists largely of parenchyma.
In many annual plants no cambium is formed at all, and the same is true of most perennial Pteridophytes and Monocotyledons.
In stems with open bundles the formation of cambium and secondary tissue may be confined to these, when it is sard to be entirely fascicular.
An ordinary cambium is scarcely ever found in the Monocotyledons, but in certain woody forms a secondary meristem is formed outside the primary bundles, and gives rise externally to a little secondary cortex, and internally to a secondary parenchyma in which are developed numerous zones of additional bundles, usually of concentric structure, with phloem surrounded by xylem.
The interfascicular cambium may form nothing but parenchymatous tissue, producing merely continuations of the primary rays.
Irregularity of cambium occurs in various families of woody dicotyledonous plants, mostly among the woody climbers, known as lianes, characteristic of tropical and sub-tropical forests.
Sometimes in such cases the cambium ceases to be active round these bays and joins across the outside of the bay, where it resumes its normal activity, thus isolating a phtoem strand, or, as it is sometimes called, a phloem -island, in the midst of the xylem.
The cambium in the root, which is found generally in those plants which possess a cambium in the stem, always begins in the conjunctive tissue internal to the primary phloems, and Camblum forms new (secondary) phloem in contact with the In Roots primary, and secondary xylem internally.
Opposite the primary xylems, the cambium either (a) forms parenchyma on both sides, making a broad, secondary (principal) ray, which interrupts the vascular ring and is divided at its inner extremity by the islet of primary xylem; or (b) forms secondary xylem and phloem in the ordinary way, completing the vascular ring.
Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.
In nearly all plants which produce secondary vascular tissues by means of a cambium there is another layer of secondary meristem arising externally to, but in quite the same fashion as, Ph II
The cambium, and producing like the latter an external ~i, and an internal secondary tissue.
In such stems and roots as increase in thickness there are other growing regions, which consist of cylindrical sheaths known as cambium layers or phellogens.
It should be remembered that a single complete defoliation of a herbaceous annual may so incapacitate the assimilation that no stores are available for seeds, tubers, &c., for another year, or at most so little that feeble plants only come up. In the case of a tree matters run somewhat differently; most large trees in full foliage have far more assimilatory surface than is immediately necessary, and if the injury is confined to a single year it may be a small event in the life of the tree, but if repeated the cambium, bud-stores and fruiting may all suffer.
Many larvae of beetles, moths, &c., bore into bark, and injure the cambium, or even the wood and pith; in addition to direct injury, the interference with the transpiration current and the access of other parasites through the wounds are also to be feared in proportion to the numbers of insects at work.
If a clean cut remains clean, the cambium and cortical tissues soon form callus over it, and in this callusregenerative tissuenew wood, &c., soon forms, and if the wound was a small one, no trace is visible after a few years.
Aphidesand may be easily penetrated by certain Fungi such as Peziza, Nectria; and when thus attacked, the repeated conflicts between the cambium and callus, on the one hand, trying to heal over the wound, and the insect or Fungus, on the other, destroying the new tissues as they are formed, results in irregular growths; the still uninjured cambium area goes on thickening the branch, the dead parts, of course, remain unthickened, and the portion in which the Fungus is at work may for the time being grow more rapidly.
The cortical tissues gradually shrink and dry up, turning brown and black in patches or all over, and when at length the cambium and medullary ray tissues dry up the whole twig dies off.
By the former method the rods are left on the ground until spring advances, when a rapid growth of the cork cambium begins.
The fungus-mycelium will go on growing indefinitely in the cambium layer, thus killing and destroying a larger area year by year.
The union is effected as in grafting, by means of the organizable sap or cambium, and the less this is disturbed until the inner bark of the shield is pressed and fixed against it the better.
In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue, known as cambium; by the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles (interfascicular cambium) a complete ring is formed, and a regular periodical increase in thickness results from it by the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside.
Much damage is often caused by species of Peridermium, which often invade the cortex and cambium to such an extent as to " ring " the stem or branch, or to cause an abnormal formation of turpentine which soaks into the wood and stops the upward passage of water; this causes the parts above the diseased area to perish.
Even the most delicate tissues, such as cambium and phloem, the endosperm of seeds, or the formative tissue of the growing-point, are frequently preserved cell for cell, both in calcareous and silicious material.
The climbing species of Gnetum are characterized by the production of several concentric cylinders of secondary wood and bast, the additional cambium-rings being products of the pericycle, as in Cycas and Macrozamia.
Secondary xylem and phloem produced by a single cambium, or by successive cambial zones; no true vessels (except in the Gnetales) in the wood, and no companioncells in the phloem.
Stems and roots increase in diameter by secondary thickening, the secondary wood being produced by one cambium or developed from successive cambium-rings.
After the cambium has been active for some time producing secondary xylem and phloem, the latter consisting of sievetubes, phloem-parenchyma and frequently thick-walled fibres, a second cambium is developed in the pericycle; this produces a second vascular zone, which is in turn followed by a third cambium, and so on, until several hollow cylinders are developed.
In order to obtain the cultivated bark as economically as possible, experiments were made which resulted in the discovery that, if the bark were removed from the trunks in alternate strips so as not to injure the cambium, or actively growing zone, a new layer of bark was formed in one year which was richer in quinine than the original bark and equal in thickness to that of two or three years' ordinary growth.
Moreover they contain no cambium and the stem once formed increases in diameter only in exceptional cases.
In the case of the more delicate plants, the formation of roots is preceded by the production from the cambium of the cuttings of a succulent mass of tissue, the callus.
When a given initial cell of the cambium has once begun to produce cells of this sort it continues the process, so that a radial plate of parenchyma cells is formed stretching in one plane through the xylem and phloem.