- Calyx and pistil of Fraxinella (Dictamnus Fraxinella).
Terminal scorpioid cymes, small blue, pink or white flowers, a five-cleft persistent calyx, a salveror funnel-shaped corolla, having its mouth closed by five short scales and hard, smooth, shining nutlets.
The calyx is small, smooth and divided into five obtuse sepals.
In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.
Apart from this, botanists are generally agreed that the concrescence of parts of the flower-whorls - in the gynaeceum as the seed-covering, and in the corolla as the seat of attraction, more than in the androecium and the calyx - is an indication of advance, as is also the concrescence that gives the condition of epigyny.
In his arrangement the last subdivision disappears, and the Dicotyledons fall into two groups, a larger containing those in which both calyx and corolla are present in the flower, and a smaller, Monochlamydeae, representing the Apetalae and Diclines Irregulares of Jussieu.
R,The dorsal suture; b, the ventral;c, calyx; s, seeds.
The bracts on the flower-stalk are either small and scattered or large and leafy, and then placed near the flower, forming a sort of outer calyx or epicalyx.
It is this second bract or flowering glume which has been generally called by systematists the " lower pale," and with the " upper pale " was formerly considered to form an outer floral envelope (" calyx," Jussieu; " perianthium," Brown).
(In this Silurian genus the calyx is provided with a movable operculum, consisting of four paired triangular pieces, the bases of each being attached to the sides of the calyx, and their apices meeting in the middle when the operculum is closed).
The calyx is triangular in section, pointed below, and the operculum is attached to it by hinge-like teeth.) Authorities.
The idea of a calyculate ancestor, though by no means connoting fixation, turned men's minds in the direction of the fixed forms, simply because in them the calyx was best developed.
The flowers have an urn-shaped calyx which persists around the fruit and is strongly veined, with five stiff, broad, almost prickly lobes; these, when the soft matter is removed by maceration, form very elegant specimens when associated with leaves prepared in a similar way.
The flowers spring from, or are enclosed in, a spathe, and are unisexual and regular, with generally a calyx and corolla, each of three members; the stamens are in whorls of three, the inner whorls are often barren; the two to fifteen carpels form an inferior ovary containing generally numerous ovules on often large, produced, parietal placentas.
When the flower is sessile the bracts are often applied closely to the calyx, and may thus be confounded with it, as in the order Malvaceae and species of Dianthus and winter aconite (Eranthis), where they have received the name of epicalyx or calyculus.
22, we recognize four distinct whorls of leaves: an outer whorl, the calyx of sepals; within it, another whorl, the parts alternating with those of the outer whorl, the corolla of petals; next a whorl of parts alternating with the parts of the corolla, the androecium of stamens; and in the centre the gynoecium of carpels.
Sometimes, as usually in monocotyledons, the calyx and corolla are similar; in such cases the term perianth, or perigone, is applied.
Thus, in the tulip, crocus, lily, speak of the parts of the perianth, in place of corolla, although in these plants there is an outer whorl (calyx), of three parts, and an inner (corolla), of a similar number, alternating with them.
When the parts of the calyx are in appearance like petals they are said to be petaloid, as in Liliaceae.
In plants, as Nymphaea alba, where a spiral arrangement of the floral leaves occurs, it is not easy to say where the calyx ends and the corolla begins, as these two whorls pass insensibly into each other.
A flower then normally consists of the four series of leaves - calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium - and when these are all present the flower is complete.
Thus in Lychnis an elongation of the axis betwixt the calyx and the corolla takes place, and in this way they are separated by an interval.
This arrangement is known as hypogynous, the other series (calyx, corolla and stamens) being beneath (hypo-) the gynoecium.
- Monochlamydeous (apetalous) flower of Goosefoot (Chenopodium), consisting of a single perianth (calyx) of five parts, enclosing five stamens, which are opposite the divisions of the perianth, owing to the absence of the petals.
Hyacinth, we calyx and FIG.
35 shows a flower of heath, with four divisions of the calyx and corolla, eight stamens in two rows, and four divisions of the pistil.
37 there are three divisions of the calyx, corolla and pistil, and six stamens in two rows.
The calyx and corolla consist of five parts, the stamens are ten in two rows, while the pistil has only two parts developed.
Thus, in many Caryophyllaceae, as Polycarpon and Holosteum, while the calyx and corolla are pentamerous, there are only three or four stamens and three carpels; in Impatiens Noli-me-tangere the calyx is composed of three parts, while the other verticils have five; in labiate flowers there are five parts of the calyx and corolla, and only four stamens; and in Tropaeolum pentaphyllum there are five sepals, two petals, eight stamens and three carpels.
We next have flowers in which the calyx is suppressed, and its place occupied by one, two or three bracts (so that the flower is, properly speaking, achlamydeous), and only one or two stamens are produced.
There is thus traced a degradation, as it is called, from a flower with three stamens and three divisions of the calyx, to one with a single bract and a single stamen.
The limb of the calyx may appear as a rim, as in some Umbelliferae; or as pappus, in Compositae and Valeriana.
In Capparidaceae the calyx and petals occupy their usual position, but the axis is prolonged in the form of a gynophore, to which the stamens are united.
The calyx is marked c. also the case with the Ranunculus, the auricula and the carnation.
Calyx of some species of clematis and of some herbaceous plants, or rolled up at the edges (involute or revolute), or folded transversely, becoming crumpled or corrugated, as in the poppy.
But in spiral flowers we have a different arrangement; thus the leaves of the calyx of Camellia japonica cover each other partially like tiles on a house.
This is also seen in a transverse section of the calyx of Magnolia grandiflora, where each of the three leaves embraces that within it.
Thus, in Malvaceae the corolla is contorted and the calyx valuate, or reduplicate; in St John's-wort the calyx is imbricate, and the corolla contorted.
In Convolvulaceae, while the corolla is twisted, and has its parts arranged in a circle, the calyx is imbricate, and exhibits a spiral arrangement.
In Guazuma the calyx is valvate, and the corolla induplicate.
The circular aestivation is generally associated with a regular calyx and corolla, while the spiral aestivations are connected with irregular as well as with regular forms.
The sepals are sometimes free or separate from each other, at other times they are united to a greater or less extent; in the former case, the calyx is polysepalous, in the latter gamosepalous or monosepalous.