The great difference is in the attitude towards the Lord's Supper, the Reformed or Calvinistic Churches repudiating not only transubstantiation but also the Lutheran consubstantiation.
It should be noted that the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists are only slightly connected with the original body.
Their work received the sympathy of Wesley and liberal financial help from the Countess of Huntingdon (see Calvinistic Methodists).
The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists are now a branch of the Presbyterian Church.
The doctrines of Presbyterianism are those generally known as evangelical and Calvinistic. The supreme standard of belief is the Word of God in the original languages.
The Presbyterian Church of Wales, commonly known as the "Calvinistic Methodist," had its origin in the great evangelical revival of the 18th century.
Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.
The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church had a total membership of 1 3, 280.
Vatable and Farel; his connexion with the latter drew him to the Calvinistic side of the movement of reform.
Muurling, one of the founders of the Groningen school, which made the first pronounced breach with Calvinistic theology in the Reformed Church of Holland.
He was reserved and very reticent, cold in manner and not sympathetic. There was, too, a certain Calvinistic austerity about him.
The Baptists, Congregationalists and Calvinistic Methodists have each a chapel in the town, and there is also a Congregational church at Tredwestan, founded in 1662.
Is Trevecca, where Howel Harris, one of the founders of Welsh Methodism, was born in 1713, and where in 1752 he established a communistic religious "family" of about a hundred persons; their representatives in 1842 handed over the property to the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist connexion, who in that year opened there a theological college, and in 1874 added to it a Harris memorial chapel.
In December,lie was preaching at the Bont Uchel Association; so that he joined the Methodists (see Calvinistic Methodists) in 1784.
The expenses were met by collections made in the Calvinistic Methodist Societies, and as the funds increased masters were multiplied, until in 1786 Charles had seven masters to whom he paid £io per annum; in 1787, twelve; in 1789, fifteen; in 1794, twenty.
While by no means abandoning the tenets of the old Calvinistic faith, he came to be looked upon as the chief representative of what was then known as the "new school" of theologians.
Calvin, on the other hand, laid stress on the principle of the utmost simplicity in public worship; at Geneva the traditional vestments were absolutely abolished, and the Genevan model was followed by the Calvinistic or "Reformed" Churches throughout Europe.
The Church of England, in which the Lutheran and Calvinistic points of view struggled for the mastery, a struggle which resulted in a compromise, is separately dealt with below.
The virulent controversy between Arminian and Calvinistic Methodists produced as its ablest outcome Fletcher's Checks to Antinomianism (1771-1775).
This view of order was accepted in the Calvinistic churches, but with various modifications.
Independents acknowledge the two orders of presbyters and deacons, and differ from the Calvinistic presbyterians chiefly in this, that with them the church is complete in each single congregation, which is subject to no control of presbytery or synod.
The " Dopper " Church, an offshoot of the Separatist Reformed Church of Holland, is distinguished from the other Dutch churches in being more rigidly Calvinistic and " Biblical," and in not using hymns.
The district was one of the chief centres of the Methodist revival of the 18th century, the first synod of the Calvinistic Methodists being held in 1743 at Watford farm close to the town, from which place George Whitefield was married at Eglwysilan church two years previously.
He was an able controversialist, and in the interests of Arminianism attacked both New England Calvinism and Unitarianism; he published in 1837 The Calvinistic Controversy.
The principal buildings are the parish church of St Thomas (restored 1874), the church of St David (r866), a Roman Catholic church, and Baptist, Calvinistic, Methodist, Congregational and Wesleyan chapels; the intermediate and technical schools (1895), Davies's endowed (elementary) school (1789), the Gwyn Hall (1888), the town hall, with corn exchange in the basement storey, and the market-house.
His first book, The Perpetuity of a Regenerate Man's Estate (1627), defended one of the main Calvinistic positions, and The Unloveliness of Love-locks and Health's Sickness (1628) attacked prevailing fashions without any sense of proportion, treating follies on the same footing as scandalous vices.
Arminius is best known as the founder of the anti-Calvinistic school in Reformed theology, which created the Remonstrant Church in Holland (see Remonstrants), and contributed to form the Arminian tendency or party in England.
His theology was that of the Scottish Calvinistic school, but his sympathetic character combined with strong conviction gathered round him one of the largest and most intelligent congregations in the city.
The Formula of Concord (1577),which gave to the whole Lutheran Church of Germany a common doctrinal system, declined to accept the Calvinistic position that man's condemnation as well as his salvation is an object of divine predestination.
- For the purpose of classification it will be convenient to discuss Lutheran, Zwinglian and Calvinistic confessions separately.
An attempt was made to add nine articles of a strong Calvinistic tone, which were drawn up by Dr Whitaker, regius professor of divinity at Cambridge, and submitted to Archbishop Whitgift.
Lucaris, who died in 1638 as patriarch of Constantinople, had corresponded with Western scholars and had imbibed Calvinistic views.
Though this was intended as a barrier against Calvinistic influences, certain Reformed writers, as well as Roman Catholics, persisted in claiming the support of the Greek Church for sundry of their own positions.
In the Labyrinth (dedicated to Queen Elizabeth of England), a discussion of the freedom of the will, he covertly assailed the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination, and showed that his views were tinged with Socinianism.
He continued his studies in Strassburg, under the professor of Hebrew, Johannes Pappus (1549-1610), a zealous Lutheran, the crown of whose life's work was the forcible suppression of Calvinistic preaching and worship in the city, and who had great influence over him.
This excluded, of course, not only the Zwinglians and Anabaptists, but the ever-increasing Calvinistic or " Reformed " Church.
An unsuccessful effort was made at the conference of Poissy to bring the two religious parties together; Beza had an opportunity to defend the Calvinistic cause, and Lainez, the general of the Order of Jesus, that of the bishop of Rome.
The ultra-Calvinistic Adolph, count of Nuenar, who was elected stadtholder,overthrew the aristocratic government and placed the people in power.
Meanwhile he had given up the Calvinistic views of his youth, and had become an enthusiastic follower of John Henry Newman.
Yet the two gradually drifted apart again owing to doctrinal differences, emerging first on the Calvinistic doctrine of grace, such as broke up the joint " Merchants' Lecture " started in 1672 in Pinners' Hall, and next on Christology.
So was it in the long run with the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, springing from Whitefield's Calvinistic wing of the Revival, not to mention the congregational strain in some minor Methodist churches.
Two new theological schools began to emerge from the old Calvinistic theology of the early settlers.
But as early as 1865, Arminians were welcomed to Congregational fellowship. In the last few decades, with the spread in the community of innovations in doctrinal and critical opinions, a wider diversity of belief has come to prevail, so that " Evangelical," in the popular sense of the term, rather than " Calvinistic," is the epithet more suit able to American Congregational preachers and churches.
In 1617 Prince Maurice of Orange committed himself definitely to the Calvinistic party, found an occasion for throwing Oldenbarnevelt and Grotius into prison, and in November of that year called a synod intended to crush the Arminians.
The churches within Germany which refused the Book of Concord became for the most part Calvinistic or Reformed.
Laud early took up a position of antagonism to the Calvinistic party in the church, and in 1604 was reproved by the authorities for maintaining in his thesis for the degree of B.D.
CALVINISTIC METHODISTS, a body of Christians forming a church of the Presbyterian order and claiming to be the only denomination in Wales which is of purely Welsh origin.
Until 1811 the Calvinistic Methodists had no ministers ordained by themselves; their enormous growth in numbers and the scarcity of ministers to administer the Sacrament - only three in North Wales, two of whom had joined only at the dawn of the century - made the question of ordination a matter of urgency.
In doctrine the church is Calvinistic, but its preachers are far from being rigid in this particular, being warmly evangelical, and, in general, distinctly cultured.
It is a remarkable fact that every Welsh revival, since 1735, has broken out among the Calvinistic Methodists.