Luther was not, like Calvin, a man of rigid system.
It was on this subject of keeping pure the Lord's Table that the controversy arose between the ministers and the town councillors which ended in the banishment of Calvin, Farel and Conrad from Geneva.
When John Knox visited Calvin at Geneva one Sunday, it is said that he discovered him engaged in a game; and John Aylmer (1521-1594), though bishop of London, enjoyed a game of a Sunday afternoon, but used such language "as justly exposed his character to reproach."
Calvin, at Farel's invitation, settled in Geneva (1536) the work of reformation became more constructive.
Whilst Protestant opponents put him in the list of atheists like Vanini, and the Catholics held him as dangerous as Luther or Calvin, there were zealous adherents who ventured to prove the theory of vortices in harmony with the book of Genesis.
When the conclusions thus reached by many independent investigators were at length reduced to a system by Calvin, in his famous Institutio, it became the definite ideal of church government for all the Reformed, in contradistinction to the Lutheran, churches.
It has been a common mistake to think of Calvin and contemporary Reformers See Lightfoot's Essay in Commentary on the Epistle to the Philippians.
"The need of the hour was organization and familiar instruction, and Calvin set himself to work at once."
1 Calvin suggested that men of known worth should be appointed in different quarters of the city to report to the ministers those persons in their district who lived in open sin; that the ministers should then warn such persons not to come to the communion; and that, if their warnings were unheeded, discipline should be enforced.
It was based on a short confession drafted by Calvin in 1557, and may still be regarded, though once or twice revised, as the confession of the French Protestant Church.
Zwingli and Calvin on the other hand prefer the positive view of law as instituted by God far back in history in the days of the Old Covenant; but,, when exegesis or controversy puts pressure upon them, they fall into line and reiterate the appeal to a Natural Law.
She was married on the 6th of January 1836 to one of the professors in the seminary, Calvin Ellis Stowe.
"CALVIN COOLIDGE (1873-), American statesman, was born at Plymouth, Vt., July 4 1873.
EDWARDS PARK Amasa (1808-1900), American Congregational theologian, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 29th of December 1808, the son of Calvin Park (1774-1847), a Congregational minister, professor from 5804 to 1825 at Brown University, and pastor at Stoughton, Massachusetts, in 1826-1840.
He is said to have been visited (1533) by Calvin on his flight from France.
Calvin Henderson Wiley (1819-1887), the author of several romances dealing with life in North Carolina, such as Roanoke: or, Where is Utopia?
Calvin, on his way to Basel for a life of study, touched at Geneva, and by the importunity of Farel was there detained to become the leader of the Genevan Reformation.
The severity of the disciplinary measures which followed procured a reaction under which Farel and Calvin were banished the city in 1538.
When (1541) Calvin was recalled to Geneva, Farel also returned; but in 1542 he went to Metz to support the Reformation there.
When the trial of Servetus was in progress (1553), Calvin was anxious for Farel's presence, but he did not arrive till sentence had been passed.
A coolness with Calvin was created by Farel's marriage, at the age of sixty-nine, with a refugee widow from Rouen, of unsuitable age.
They are first heard of in Savoy in the year 1258, and more than two centuries later they went to Geneva (151o), united with Calvin in his opposition to Rome, and associated their fortunes with those of the little Swiss city.
After the beginning of the German Reformation many Utraquists adopted to a large extent the doctrines of Luther and Calvin; and in 1567 obtained the repeal of the compacts, which no longer seemed sufficiently far-reaching.
It was the popular movement of the Reformation, which made the sermon a piece of literature, on the lips of Jean Calvin (1509-1564), Pierre Viret (1511-1571) and Theodore de Beze (1519-1605).
The last-named gives an elaborate history of interpretation from the Septuagint down to Calvin, and appends the Ethiopic text edited by Dillmann.
Calvin states his views clearly in the fourth book of his Institutes, cap. iii.
He afterwards studied divinity at Geneva under Calvin, and Hebrew at Paris under Jean Mercier.
In Geneva under Calvin, while the Consistoire, or ecclesiastical court, could inflict only spiritual penalties, yet the medieval idea of the duty of the state to co-operate with the church to maintain the religious purity of the community in matters of belief as well as of conduct so far survived that the civil authority was sure to punish those whom the ecclesiastical had censured.
Calvin consented to the death of Servetus, whose views on the Trinity he regarded as most dangerous heresy, and whose denial of the full authority of the Scriptures he dreaded as overthrowing the foundations of all religious authority.
Among the Reformers were, of course, Martin Luther and most of his German collaborators; the Swiss Zwingli, Bullinger, Farel and Calvin; the English Latimer, John Bradford, John Jewel; the Scot John Knox.
While Calvin began sternly with the question.
He was cordially received by Calvin, and within two years published six volumes of Prediche, tracts rather than sermons, explaining and vindicating his change of religion.
It was in 1536, when Calvin was on a hurried and final visit to France, that in Paris he first met Servetus, and as he himself says, proposed to set him right on theological points.'
Late in 1545, or very early in 1546, he opened a fatal correspondence with Calvin, forwarding the manuscript of a much-enlarged revision of his theological tracts and expressing a wish to visit Geneva.
Calvin replied (r3th February 1546) in a letter now lost; in which, he says, he expressed himself " plus durement que ma coustume ne porte."
Writing to Abel Pouppin (in or about 1547) he complains that Calvin would not return his manuscript, and adds, " mihi ob earn rem moriendum esse certo scio."
For a subsequent letter Calvin furnished (reluctantly, according to de Trye) samples of Servetus's handwriting, expressly to secure his conviction.
His defence was that, in correspondence with Calvin, he had assumed the character of Servetus for purposes of discussion.
His own account is that he never left France; Calvin believed he was wandering in the North of Italy; the absurd suggestion that he lay hid as a conspirator in Geneva was first started by J.
Calvin would have had him beheaded.
Porter, Servetus and Calvin (1854).
Willis, M.D., Servetus and Calvin (1877, an unsatisfactory book; cf.
John Knox, who, after a chequered career, had come under the influence of Calvin at Geneva, returned to Scotland for a few months in 1 555, and shortly after (1557) that part of the Scottish nobility which had been won over to the new faith formed their first " covenant " for mutual protection.
The Sorbonne also drew up a list of prohibited books, including those of Calvin, Luther and Melanchthon; and the parlement issued a decree against all printing of Protestant literature.
In the same year (September 1536), as Calvin was passing through the town on his way back to Strassburg after a short visit in Italy, he was seized by Farel and induced most reluctantly to remain and aid him in thoroughly carrying out the Reformation in a city in which the conservative sentiment was still very strong.
As there proved to be a large number in the town councils who did not sympathize with the plans of organization recommended by Calvin and his colleagues, the town preachers were, after a year and a half of unsatisfactory labour, forced to leave Geneva.
- For three years Calvin sojourned in Germany; he signed the Augsburg Confession, gained the friendship of Melanchthon and other leading reformers, and took part in the religious conferences of the period.
Thus " we ought," as Lindsay says, " to see in the disciplinary powers and punishments of the Consistory of Geneva not an exhibition of the working of the Church organized on the principles of Calvin, but the ordinary procedure of the town council of a medieval city.
Notwithstanding these measures for their extermination, the French Protestants were proceeding to organize a church in accordance with the conceptions of the early Christian communities as Calvin described them in his Institutes.
Persecution was revived by the Guises; Du Bourg, the brave defender of the Protestants, was burned as a heretic; yet Calvin could in the closing years of his life form a cheerful estimate that some three hundred thousand of his countrymen had been won over to his views.
The number of questions which Calvin failed to ask or eluded by absolutely irrational expedients frees him from any taint of modern rationalism.
In a great sermon on the 10th of April (Easter week) 1588, he stoutly vindicated the Protestantism of the Church of England against the Romanists, and, oddly enough, adduced "Mr Calvin" as a new writer, with lavish praise and affection.
Calvin and Hobbes is art.
Erasmus and Calvin were among his correspondents.
With regard to the relations between the Church and the civil power, Calvin was opposed to the Zwinglian theory whereby all ecclesiastical power was handed over to the state.
During the three years of his banishment Calvin was at Strassburg, where he had been carrying out his ideas.
The state retained control of the ecclesiastical organization, and Calvin secured his much-needed system of discipline.
"Calvin," says Principal Lindsay, "did three things for Geneva all of which went far beyond its walls.