A branch of the Callao & Oroya railway is also projected southward to Cuzco, and reached Huancayo in 1908.
They left Callao on the 21st of December 1605, and in the following year discovered the island now known as Espiritu Santo, one of the New Hebrides group, which De Quiros, under the impression that it was indeed the land of which he was in search, named La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
The appearance of Drake on the Peruvian coast led to an expedition being fitted out at Callao, to go in chase of him, under the command of Pedro Sarmiento.
He sailed from Callao in October 1579, and made a careful survey of the Strait of Magellan, with the object of fortifying that entrance to the South sea.
They sailed from Callao in December 1605, and discovered several islands of the New Hebrides group. They anchored in a bay of a large island which Quiros named " Australia del Espiritu Santo."
CALLAO, a city, port and coast department of Peru, 82 m.
Callao is the principal port of the republic, its harbour being a large bay sheltered by a tongue of land on the south called La Punta, and by the islands of San Lorenzo and Fronton.
The climate is good and the coast is swept by cool ocean breezes, the average temperatures ranging from 65° to 77° F., but notwithstanding this, Callao has a bad reputation for fevers and contagious diseases, chiefly because of its insanitary condition.
The importance of Callao in colonial times, when it was the only open port south of Panama, did not continue under the new political order, because of the unsettled state of public affairs and the loss of its monopoly.
This decline in its prosperity was checked, and the modern development of the port began, when a railway was built from Callao into the heart of the Andes, and Callao is now an important factor in the development of copper-mining.
Draught and 5000 tons weight), which was built in Glasgow and was sent out to Callao in 1863.
Callao was formerly the headquarters in South America of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co., Ltd.
Being a port of the first class, Callao is an important distributing centre for the coasting trade, in which a large number of small vessels are engaged.
Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.
The history of Callao has been exceptionally eventful.
The Callao fortifications were bombarded by a Spanish fleet under Admiral Mendez Nunez on the 2nd of May 1866, when there were heavy losses both in lives and material.
Of the principal mouth of the Orinoco and near the borders of British Guiana, where the famous El Callao mines are.
Its anchorage was used by Lord Cochrane in 1820 during his attacks on Callao; it was the landing-place of an invading Chilean army in 1838; it was bombarded by the Chileans in 1880; and in 1883 it was the meeting-place of the Chilean and Peruvian commissioners who drew up the treaty of Ancon, which ended the war between Chile and Peru.
Callao (Province) 12.
The most terrible was that of 1746, which destroyed Callao, on the 28th of October, and there were 220 shocks in the following twenty-four hours.
Those of Carabayllo and Rimac are connected, and the view from the Bay of Callao extends over a vast expanse of fertile plain bounded by the Andes, with the white towers of Lima in a setting of verdure.
Long by I broad, forming the Bay of Callao; its highest point is 1050 ft.
Horadada Islet, with a hole through it, is to the south of Callao Point.
The foreign population is chiefly concentrated in Lima and Callao, though mining and other industries have drawn small contingents to other places.
The professional schools include a school of civil and mining engineering at Lima (created 1876), a military school at Chorrillos under the direction of French instructors, a naval school at Callao, nine episcopal seminaries (one for each diocese), a national agricultural school in the vicinity of Lima (created 1902), and a few commercial schools.
Callao (q.v.) is a noteworthy exception, and Paita and Pisco are something more than the average coast village.
Railway construction in Peru began in 1848 with a short line from Callao to Lima, but the building of railway lines across the desert to the inland towns of the fertile river valleys and the Andean foot-hills did not begin until twenty years later.
Of private lines, the estimated cost to be about £37,500,000-a sum far beyond the resources of the republic. The two transandean lines were the famous Oroya railway, running from Callao to Oroya (1893), which crosses the Western Cordillera at an elevation of 15,645 ft., and later on to Cerro de Pasco (1904), the Goillarisquisga coal mines (1904) and Hauri (1906); and the southern line from Mollendo to Lake Titicaca, which reached Arequipa in 1869, Puno in 1871 and Checcacupe (Cuzco branch) in 1906.
The inland telegraph service dates from 1864, when a short line from Callao to Lima was constructed, and state ownership from 1875, when the government assumed control of all lines within the republic, some of which were subsequently handed over to private administration.
Paita, Eten, Pacasmayo, Salaverry, Callao, Pisco, Mollendo and Ilo, five of which are ports of call for foreign coasting steamers.
The second-class ports are Tumbez, Talara, Pimentel, Chimbote, Samanco, Casma, Huacho, Cerro-Azul, Tambo de Mora Lomas and Chala, on the coast, Puno on Lake Titicaca, and Leticia on the Amazon near the western mouth of the Javary, Callao (qv.) is the chief port of the republic and monopolizes the greater part of its foreign trade.
They were followed almost immediately by the surrender of Lima and Callao, which left the Chileans practically masters of Peru.
His capture of the Spanish frigate "Esmeralda" (40) in the harbour of Callao, on the 5th of November 1820, was an achievement of signal daring.
The possessions of the Spaniards in Peru were now confined to the castles of Callao, which Rodil maintained for upwards of a year, in spite of all the means that could be employed for their reduction.
After this bloodless revolution the third division embarked at Callao on the 17th of March 1827, and landed in the southern department of Colombia in the following month.
Besides the wine industry, an irregular though important industry is the manufacture of artificial or counterfeit spirits and liqueurs in Callao and Lima.
There are breweries in Arequipa, Callao, Cuzco and Lima, and the consumption of beer is increasing.
There are large cigarette factories in Lima, and others in Arequipa, Callao, Piura and Trujillo.
The naval school at Callao is under the direction of an officer of the French navy.
De Mendiburu, Diccionario historicobiogrdfico del Peru (8 vols., Callao, 1874-1890); E.