Baird, who distinguishes between Canadian, Alleghanian, Middle or Missourian, Californian and Alaskan provinces.
On the other hand, it is rich in Cornpositae, especially Solidago and A ster, Polemoniaceae, Asciepiadaceae, Hydrophyllaceae and Cyperaceae, and it has the endemic Sarracenia, type of a family structurally allied to poppies, of which of the remaining genera Darlingtonia is Californian, and Heliamphora Venezuelan.
Reaching the Pacific through the Strait of Magellan, Drake proceeded northward along the west coast of America, resolved to attempt the discovery of a northern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The coast from the southern extremity of the Californian peninsula to Cape Mendocino had been discovered by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and Francisco de Ulloa in 1539.
At a few points, such as Nikita near Livadia and Alupka, where plants have been acclimatized by human agency, the Californian Wellingtonia, the Lebanon cedar, many evergreen trees, the laurel, the cypress, and even the Anatolian palm (Chamaerops excelsa) flourish.
Other Californian cypresses are C. macrocarpa, the Monterey cypress, which is 60 ft.
The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and other places on the southern Californian coast, and when polished makes a beautiful ornament.
He continued successfully in the management of this business through a financial crisis incident to a wildly speculative time, until in the spring of 1857 the house, by his advice, withdrew from Californian affairs.
Production of the five years 1881-1885 was the smallest since the Australian and Californian mines began to be worked in 1848-1849; the minimum 4,614,588 oz., occurred in 1882.
In the mills of the Californian type the stamp is a cylindrical iron pestle faced with a chilled cast iron shoe, removable so that it can be renewed when necessary, attached to a round iron rod or lifter, the whole weighing from 600 to 900 lb; stamps weighing 1320 lb are in use in the Transvaal.
Horizontal cylindrical retorts, holding from 200 to 1200 tb of amalgam, are used in the larger Californian mills, pot retorts being used in the smaller mills.
Absolutely) in the southern Californian fruit country, and immigration has been, generally, of the comparatively well-to-do.
Los Angeles, like all other Californian cities, has the privilege of making and amending its own charter, subject to the approval of the state legislature.
In the last years of Mexican dominion it was the most prominent of the northern settlements in which the Hispano-Californian element predominated over the new American element.
Compelled by the windy climate the colonists are doing something to repair these ravages by planting European, Californian and Australian sheltertrees; but it is only in the naturally open and grassy regions of the east and south-east that settlement as yet improves the landscape.
It splits into two parts east of the Philippines, one division flowing northwards as the Kuro Siwo or Black Stream, the analogue of the Gulf Stream, to feed a drift circulation which follows the winds of the North Pacific, and finally forms the Californian Current flowing southwards along the American coast.
The slopes are precipitous on the east coast, but on the west they break down in hills and terraces to the Pacific. This range may be considered a southward continuation of the Californian Sierra Nevada.
Other industries of a desultory character include the collection of archil, or Spanish moss, on the western side of the Californian peninsula, hunting herons for their plumes and alligators for their skins, honey extraction (commonly wild honey), and the gathering of cochineal and ni-in insects.
The redwood of the Californian woodsmen, S.
Gigantea, the largest of known conifers; it is confined to the western portion of the great Californian range for a length of about 260 m., at an altitude of from 5000 to 8400 ft.
N.B.-A trifling quantity of Californian and Australian wheat was imported in the period in question, but the Board of Trade records do not distinguish the quantities, therefore they cannot be given.
Coulteri, a fine Californian plant, with large white flowers on shoots often as high as 7 ft.; R.
The following is an outline of the process adopted in a Californian factory.
When in 1905 the rich silver area was found in northern Ontario, a rush was made to it, comparable to those to the Australian and Californian goldfields.
The Californian poppy (Platystemon californicus) is a pretty annual about a foot high, having yellow flowers with 3 sepals and 6 petals; and the white bush poppy (Romneya Coulteri) is a very attractive perennial and semishrubby plant 2-8 ft.
Before 1850 it was practically the exclusive eastern terminus on the river for the Santa Fe trade, 2 and a great outfitting point for Californian emigrants.
It was common to those tribes east of the Rocky Mountains, in the south-west and upper Columbia; but unknown apparently among the Eskimo, along the northwest coast, and on the Pacific coast west of the Cascade range and the Sierras, except among some few Californian tribes, or here and there in Mexico and southward.
The Jamaica or calabash nutmeg is derived from Monodora Myristica, the Brazilian from Cryptocarya moschata, the Peruvian from Laurelia sempervirens, the Madagascar or clove nutmeg from Agathophyllum aromaticum, and the Californian or stinking nutmeg from Torreya Myristica.
Among the peculiarities of Californian climate it is not one of the least striking that as one leaves the Sacramento or San Joaquin plains and travels into the mountains it becomes warmer, at least for the first 2000 or 3000 ft.
Grizzly, black, cinnamon and brown bears are all Californian species once common and to-day rare.
On Santa Cruz Professor Joseph Le Conte found 248 species, nearly all of which are distinctively Californian, 48 being peculiar to the surrounding islands and 28 peculiar to Southern California.
The peculiarities of the climate, especially its division into two seasons, make Californian (and Southern Arizona) agriculture very different from that of the rest of the country.
Small fruits, orchard fruits, hay, garden products and grains are decreasingly dependent on irrigation; wheat, which was once California's great staple, is (for good, but not for best results) comparatively independent of it, - hence its early predominance in Californian agriculture, due to this success on arid lands since taken over for more remunerative irrigated crops.
Hides and tallow were the sum and substance of Californian economy.
They grow very abundantly and of the finest quality; for many years poor methods of preparation prejudiced the market against the Californian product, but this has ceased to be the case.
Between the pastoral period and the era of wheat was the golden epoch of Californian history.
The Californian discoveries had given rise to a general search for metalliferous deposits in the Atlantic states, and this had been followed by wild speculations.
This Comstock fever belongs to Californian rather than to Nevadan history, and is one of the most extraordinary in mining annals.
Californian coal is almost wholly inferior brown lignite, together with a small quantity of bituminous coals of poor quality; the state does not produce a tenth part of the coal it consumes.
The Indians were prominent in early Californian history, but their progress toward their present insignificance began far back in the Spanish period.
The lower Colorado river was discovered in 1540, but the explorers did not penetrate California; in 1542-1543 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo explored at least the southern coast; in 1579 Sir Francis Drake repaired his ships in some Californian port (almost certainly not San Francisco Bay), and named the land New Albion; two Philippine ships visited the coast in 1584 and 1595, and in 1602 and 1603 Sebastian Vizcaino discovered the sites of San Diego and Monterey.
This is the mission period - or from an economic standpoint, the pastoral period - of Californian history.
The occupation of Monterey for a few hours by a Buenos Aires privateer (1818) was the only incident of actual war that California saw in all these years; and it, in truth, was a ridiculous episode, fit introduction to the bloodless play-wars, soon to be inaugurated in Californian politics.
After that secularization was the burning question in Californian politics.
It was greatly stimulated American g 9 Y g Y during the Spanish-American revolutions (the Lima and Panama trade dating from about 1813), for, as the Californian authorities practically ignored the law, smuggling was unnecessary; this was, indeed, much greater after 1822 under the high duties (in 1836-1840 generally about loo %) of the Mexican tariffs.
They controlled commerce, and were more energetic, generally, than were the natives; many were naturalized, held generous grants of land, and had married into Californian families, not excluding the most select and influential.
C. Fremont, - whose doings in California in the next two years were to be the main assets in a life-long reputation and an unsuccessful presidential campaign, - while engaged in a government surveying expedition, aroused the apprehensions of the Californian authorities by suspicious and very possibly intentionally provocative movements, and there was a show of military force by both parties.
Resentment, however, incited him to personal revenge on the Californian government, and an ambition that clearly saw the gravity of the crisis prompted him to improve it unscrupulously for his own advancement, leaving his The government to support or disavow him according as P1 war should come or not.
The aftermath of Fremont's filibustering acts, followed as they were by wholly needless hostilities and by some injustice then and later in the attitude of Americans toward the natives, was a growing misunderstanding, and estrangement regrettable in Californian history.
Before the end of the war Mexican laws not incompatible with United States laws were by international law supposed to be in force; but nobody knew what they were, and the uncertainties of vague and variable alcalde jurisdictions were increased when Americans began to be alcaldes and grafted English common-law principles, like the jury, on Californian practices.
Never was a population more in need of clear laws than the motley Californian people of 1848-1849, yet they had none when, with peace, military rule and Mexican law technically ended.
At the present time America exports a considerable quantity of wine, and there is some trade in the United Kingdom in Californian " claret."
Of the partridges, the continental red-leg (Caccabis rufa) is established in England, and its ally, the Asiatic chukore (C. chukar), in St Helena, as is the Californian quail (Lophortyx californica) in New Zealand and Hawaii.
A revival of the old Spanish-Moorish " mission " (monastery) style has exercised an increasing influence and is altogether the most pleasing development of Californian architecture.
It is characteristic of the vagaries of Californian commerce in the early years that dressed granite for some buildings was imported from China.
In 1854 a Californian company began importing ice from Alaska.
Such classification may show the existence of two or more types, in a community, as, for instance, the population of a Californian settlement made up of Whites and Chinese might show two predominant groups (one of 5 ft.
In the Californian Pinus monophylla each spur bears usually one needle, but two are not uncommon; it would seem that rudiments of two needles are always produced, but, as a rule, only one develops into a needle.
The chief foes of Indra are Vrittra and Ahi, serpents which swallow up the waters, precisely as frogs do in Australian and Californian and Andaman myths.
The still more celebrated mercury mines of Almaden, the richest in the world till the discovery of the Californian mines of New Almaden, belong to Ciudad Real, and this province, together with that of Oviedo, furnishes the whole of the Spanish production of this mineral.
Otherwise the Californian flora is entirely deficient in the characteristic features of that of eastern North America.