Fred O'Connor, at 74, had long since finished his working career, a calico collection of jobs which changed with the telling, none of which gave him a pension.
A large number of cotton mills furnish the chief source of industry; printing, dyeing and bleaching of cotton and calico, spinning and weaving machine making, iron and steel works, and collieries in the neighbourhood, are also important.
The weaving of cotton, for which the place was at one time so famous that its name became identified with its calico, is no longer of any importance.
It is the seat of cotton, calico, silk, machinery and other industries, and excellent wine is grown there.
Ultramarine being very cheap, it is largely used for wall painting, the printing of paperhangings and calico, &c., and also as a corrective for the yellowish tinge often present in things meant to be white, such as linen, paper, &c. Large quantities are used in the manufacture of paper, and especially for producing that kind of pale blue writing paper which is so popular in Great Britain.
When freed from excess of water it is laid on a sheet of thick white blotting-paper, and a piece of smooth washed calico is placed upon it (unwashed calico, on account of its "facing," adheres to the sea-weed).
For example, Wilde produced copper printing surfaces for calico printing-rollers and the like by immersing rotating iron cylinders as cathodes in a copper bath.
It is decomposed by heat into oxide, nitrogen peroxide and oxygen; and is used for the manufacture of fusees and other deflagrating compounds, and also for preparing mordants in the dyeing and calico-printing industries.
In 1830 Cobden learnt that Messrs Fort, calico printers at Sabden, near Clitheroe, were about to retire from business, and he, with two other young men, Messrs Sheriff and Gillet, who were engaged in the same commercial house as himself, determined to make an effort to acquire the succession.
Calico, fire-arms and swords had replaced the primitive bark-cloth and bymwanga, spear, while under the teaching of the missionary- 1884.
Its industrial products are yarn, calico, woollen goods, thread.
The cotton manufacture is the principal industry; there are also calico printing, dyeing and bleaching works, machinery and iron works, woollen manufactures, and coal mines and quarries in the vicinity.
It is easily soluble in warm water, the solution being, of a dull blue tint, and is used in calico-printing, dyeing and tanning.
Wide (the extremes being used on the one hand for children's cots or ship bunks and on the other for old-fashioned four-posters), which may be either plain or twilled, bleached, unbleached or half-bleached; (2) a grey calico, heavier than a shirting, sent largely to China and other markets, usually 36 in.
Mexican is a plain, heavy grey calico, sometimes heavily sized.
T Cloth is a plain grey calico, similar in kind to the Mexican and exported to the same markets.
Medium is a plain calico, grey or bleached, of medium weight, used principally in the home and colonial trade.
Among these are sateen, which, dyed or printed, is largely used for dresses, linings, upholstery, &c.; linenette, dyed and finished to imitate coloured linen in the north of Ireland and elsewhere; hollandette, usually unbleached or half-bleached and finished to imitate linen holland; and interlining, a coarse, plain white calico used as padding for linen collars.
Of course the partial loss of the piece-goods trade by the shops is not a loss in aggregate trade, as they are the ultimate distributors of the made-up garments, which are probably at least as profitable to retail as calico or flannelette sold in lengths.
At one time also some species were used in the arts for supplying a gum as a substitute for gum-arabic. These were chiefly Ramalina fraxinea, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia physodes, all of which contain a considerable proportion of gummy matter (of a much inferior quality, however, to gum-arabic), and were employed in the process of calico-printing and in the making of parchment and cardboard.
The chief industries of ElberfeldBarmen and the valley of the Wupper are cotton-weaving, calico-printing and the manufacture of turkey red and other dyes.
In connection with the cotton industry there are a few mills where calico is made or oil crushed, and ginning-mills are numerous.
The chief industries include bleaching, calico-printing, cotton-spinning, weaving, iron and brass founding, engineering and the manufacture of sanitary appliances.
The garment doing duty as a chemise is called a pirahan; it is, with the lower orders, of white or blue calico, and comes down to the middle of the thigh, leaving the leg nude.
Besides contributing extensively to the English and French scientific journals, he published a work on Dyeing and Calico-Printing.
The residue is removed to a calico filter and thoroughly washed with boiling water, the wash water being reboiled and used time after time.