Nearly all his arguments, especially where he attempts to interpret Jefferson's writings on the point, notably the Kentucky resolutions, are rather strained and specious, but it does seem that the Virginia resolutions were based on a different idea from Calhoun's doctrine of nullification.
Henry Clay, the speaker of the house, being eager for war and knowing Calhoun's hostility to Great Britain, gave him the second place on the committee of foreign affairs, of which he soon became the actual head.
In 1832 South Carolina, acting in substantial accordance with Calhoun's theories, "nullified" the tariff acts passed by Congress in 1828 and 1832 (see Nullification; South Carolina; and United States).
The Constitution, if strictly interpreted according to Calhoun's views, would secure this control to the minority, and prevent an industrial upheaval.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-A collected edition of Calhoun's Works (6 vols., New York, 1853-1855) has been edited by Richard K.
Calhoun's Correspondence, edited by J.
The biography of Calhoun by Dr Hermann von Holst in the "American Statesmen Series" (Boston, 1882) is a condensed study of the political questions of Calhoun's time.
When the slave power became more aggressive, in and after the year 1831, Clay defended the right of petition for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, and opposed Calhoun's bill forbidding the use of the mails to "abolition" newspapers and documents.