In Gaul we with many other cities kept Easter on the fourteenth calends of May, others, as the Spaniards, on the twelfth calends of April."
Thus, the simple reflection that the door is used for the double purpose of entrance and exit leads to the notion of the Janus of the state as bifrons (" two-faced"): the thought of the door as the first part of the house to which one comes, produces the more abstract idea of Janus as the "god of beginning," in which character he has special charge of the first beginnings of human life (Consevius), the first hour of the day, the Calends of the month and the first month of the year in the later calendar: for the same reason his name takes the first place in the indigitamenta.
The civil year commenced with the calends of January, but this did not hold a fixed place in the solar year till the time of Julius Caesar(see Calendar).
On the 5th day before the calends of October (Sept.
CALENDAR, so called from the Roman Calends or Kalends, a method of distributing time into certain periods adapted to the purposes of civil life, as hours, days, weeks, months, years, &c.
Instead of distinguishing the days by the ordinal numbers first,, second, third, &c., the Romans counted backwards from three fixed epochs, namely, the Calends, the Nones and the Ides.
The Calends, (or Kalends) were invariably the first day of the month, and were so denominated because it had been an ancient custom of the pontiffs to call the people together on that day, to apprize them of the festivals, or days that were to be kept sacred during the month.
From these three terms the days received their denomination in the following manner: - Those which were comprised between the Calends and the Nones were called the days before the Nones; those between the Nones and the Ides were called the days before the Ides; and, lastly, all the days after the Ides to the end of the month were called the days before the Calends of the succeeding month.
The number of days receiving their denomination from the Calends depended on the number of days in the month and the day on which the Ides fell.
In January, therefore, the 14th day of the month was called the nineteenth before the Calends of February (counting inclusively), the 15th was the 18th before the Calends and so onto the 3 0 th, which was called the third before the Calend (tertio Calendas), the last being the second of the Calends, or the day before the Calends (pridie Calendas).
February Having Then Twenty Nine Days, The 25Th Was The 6Th Of The Calends Of March, Sexto Calendas; The Preceding, Which Was The Additional Or Intercalary Day, Was Called Bis Sexto Calendas, Hence The Term Bissextile, Which Is Still Employed To Distinguish The Year Of 366 Days.