CALENBERG, or Kalenberg, the name of a district, including the town of Hanover, which was formerly part of the duchy of Brunswick.
The best agriculture is to be found in the districts of Hildesheim, Calenberg, GÃ¶ttingen and Grubenhagen, on the banks of the Weser and Elbe, and in East Friesland.
The name Hanover (Hohenufer = high bank), originally confined to the town which became the capital of the duchy of Luneburg-Calenberg, came gradually into use to designate, first, the duchy itself, and secondly, the electorate of Brunswick-Luneburg; and it was officially recognized as the name of the state when in 1814 the electorate was raised to the rank of a kingdom.
The early history of Hanover is merged in that of the duchy of Brunswick (q.v.), from which the duchy of Brunswick-Liineburg and its offshoots, the duchies of LUneburg-Celle and Luneburg-Calenberg have sprung.
In 1617 he aided his brother, Duke Christian, to add Grubenhagen to Luneburg, and after the extinction of the family of BrunswickWolfenbuttel in 1634, he obtained Calenberg for himself, making Hanover the capital of his small dukedom.
1665), became duke of Luneburg-Celle; and at this time he handed over Calenberg, which he had ruled since his father's death, to his second brother, George William (d.
When Christian Louis died George William succeeded him in Luneburg-Celle; but the duchy was also claimed by a younger brother, John Frederick, a cultured and enlightened prince who had forsaken the Lutheran faith of his family and had become a Roman Catholic. Soon, however, by an arrangement John Frederick received Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which he ruled in absolute fashion, creating a standing army and modelling his court after that of Louis XIV., and which came on his death in 1679 to his youngest brother, Ernest Augustus (1630-1698), the Protestant bishop of Osnabruck.
Having introduced the principle of primogeniture into Calenberg in 1682, Ernest determined to secure for himself the position of an elector, and the condition of Europe and the exigencies of the emperor favoured his pretensions.
George Louis married his cousin Sophia Dorothea, the only child of George William of LUneburg-Celle; and on his uncle's death in 1705 he united this duchy, together with Saxe-Lauenburg, with his paternal inheritance of Calenberg or Hanover.
The large Lutheran church of St Blasius (14th-15th centuries) contains the sarcophagus of Duke Eric of Brunswick-Calenberg (d.