There is nowhere a real defining line between the two (many New Caledonians having black skins and woolly hair with Polynesian superiority of limb), but the Polynesian type is generally found among the chiefs and their kindred.
Having explored the coasts of Fife and Forfar, he gained a decisive victory over the Caledonians under Galgacus at the Graupian hill (see Britain, Roman).
The government of Commodus, feeble in itself and vexed by many troubles, could not repair the loss, and the civil wars which soon raged in Europe (193-197) gave the Caledonians further chance.
That the Caledonians, like the later Scots, sometimes sought their fortunes in the south, is proved by a curious tablet of about A.D.
300 that we read of " the Caledonians and other Picts "; in the 4th century they frequently harried the Romans up to the wall of Hadrian, between Tyne and Solway.
The Scots, from Ireland, also now come into view, the name of Scotland being derived from that of a people really Irish in origin, who spoke a Gaelic (see CeltIC) akin to that of the Caledonians, and were in a similar stage of higher barbarism.