When Hastings landed at Calcutta in October 1750 the affairs of the East India Company were at a low ebb.
That province was under the able government of Ali Vardi Khan, who peremptorily forbade the foreign settlers at Calcutta and Chandernagore to introduce feuds from Europe.
All the officers of administration were transferred from Murshidabad to Calcutta, which Hastings boasted at this early date that he would make the first city in Asia.
The new members of council disembarked at Calcutta on the 19th of October 1774; and on the following day commenced the long feud which scarcely terminated twentyone years later with the acquittal of Warren Hastings by the House of Lords.
In February 1785 he finally sailed from Calcutta, after a dignified ceremony of resignation, and amid enthusiastic farewells from all classes.
But he was now destined to learn that his enemy Francis, whom he had discomfited in the council chamber at Calcutta, was more than his match in the parliamentary arena.
He founded the Madrasa or college for Mahommedan education at Calcutta, primarily out of his own funds; and he projected the foundation of an Indian institute in England.
Forrest, The Administration of Warren Hastings (Calcutta, 1892); Sir Charles Lawson, The Private Life of Warren Hastings (1895); L.
Webb, Currencies of the Hindu States of Rajputana (1893); Chiefs and Leading Families of Rajputana (1903); and Rajputana Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1908).
Turtles are abundant and supply the Calcutta market.
Portman, Record of the Andamanese (Ii volumes MS. in India Office, London, and Home Department, Calcutta), 18 931898, Andamanese Manual (1887), Notes on the Languages of the South Andaman Group of Tribes (1898), and History of our Relations with the Andamanese (1899); S.
In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.
Statistics.See Wyatt, Agricultural Ledger (Calcutta, 1895), p. 71; Balfour, The Agricuttural Pests of India (1887), p. 13; Eriksson and Henning, Die Getreideroste; the publications of the U.S. Agricultural Department; the Kew Bulletin; Zeitschrift fr Pjlanzeiikrankheiten, and elsewhere.
Gait, A History of Assam (Calcutta, 1906).
In northern India the greatest difference does not exceed 40°; and it falls off to about 15 ° at Calcutta, and to about 10° or 12 °at Bombay and Madras.
North-east of Calcutta, which presents an abrupt front to the progress of the moist winds flowing up from the Bay of Bengal.
Are registered, and the quantity is here nowhere less than 75 or 80 in., which is about the average of the eastern part of the delta of the Ganges, Calcutta standing at about 64 in.
Tissandier, Voyage au tour du monde (Paris, 1892); Lord Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question (London, 1892); Russia and the Anglo-Russian Question (London, 1889); Problems of the Far East (London, 1894); Captain Hamilton Bower, Diary of a Journey across Tibet (Calcutta, 1893); Szechenyi, Die wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse der Reise des Grafen Bela Szechenyi in Ostasien (Wien, 1893); R.
The English power was rising at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
Its line to some extent may be partly made out - very clearly, for the matter of that, so far as its details have been published in the series of papers to which reference has been given - and some traces of its features are probably preserved in his Catalogue of the specimens of birds in the museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which, after several years of severe labour, made its appearance at Calcutta in 1849; but, from the time of his arrival in India, the onerous duties imposed upon Blyth, together with the want of sufficient books of reference, seem to have hindered him from seriously continuing his former researches, which, interrupted as they were, and born out of due time, had no appreciable effect on the views of systematisers generally.
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
Of Calcutta, on an old channel of the Ganges.
Mr Peppe presented the coffer and vases with specimens of the jewelry to the museum at Calcutta where they still are.
In the cold weather the temperature in Nagpur and the other hot districts is about the same as in Calcutta and substantially higher than that of northern India.
The BengalNagpur line has now opened up the eastern portion of the country, bringing it into direct connexion with Calcutta; and a new branch of the Indian Midland, from Saugor through Damoh, has been partly constructed as a famine work.
It is served by the East Coast railway, which was opened throughout from Calcutta to Madras in 1891, with a branch to Puri town.
See Puri District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1908).
Above Calcutta, in 22° 51' 40" N.
All the former commercial grandeur of Chandernagore has now passed away, and at present it is little more than a quiet suburb of Calcutta, without any external trade.
The herbarium at Melbourne, Australia, under Baron Muller, attained large proportions; and that of the Botanical Garden of Calcutta is noteworthy as the repository of numerous specimens described by writers on Indian botany.
Preussischen Akademie for the 9th July 1903; Babu P. Mukherji, Report on a Tour of Exploration of the Antiquities in the Terai (Calcutta, 1903); V.
The gross receipts from this export trade amounted in the year1908-1909to £T99,564, and the profits approximately to £T12,000, in spite of the contest between Liverpool and Spanish salt merchants on the Calcutta market, which led to a heavy cutting of prices.
The quatrains have been edited at Calcutta (1836) and Teheran (1857 and i862); text and French translation by 3.
In his boyhood he was taken to Canada, but in 1843 he returned to Scotland; then studied at Calcutta in the military academy, entered the army, and after distinguishing himself in the Punjab campaign, returned to Canada, whence in 1857 he removed to Vinton, Iowa.
BRAHMA SAMAJ, a religious association in India which owes its origin to (Raja) Ram Mohan Roy, who began teaching and writing in Calcutta soon after 1800.
The Brahma Samaj maintained a bare existence till 1841, when Babu Debendra Nath Tagore, a member of a famous and wealthy Calcutta family, devoted himself to it.
But even when we add all sections of the Brahma Samaj together, the total number of adherents is only about 4000, mostly found in Calcutta and its neighbourhood.
Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindu Kush (Calcutta, 1880); W.
There is only one college, at Rangoon, which is affiliated to the Calcutta University.
The whole of the law administered now in Burma rests ultimately upon statutory authority; and all the Indian acts relating to Burma, whether of the governor-general or the lieutenant-governor of Burma in council, will be found in the Burma Code (Calcutta, 1899), and in the supplements to that volume which are published from time to time at Rangoon.
They imagined that, like other nations, they would fallbefore their superior tactics and valour; and their cupidity was inflamed by the prospect of marching to Calcutta and plundering the country.
He also wrote the Kitab ushShama'il on the character and life of Mahomet (printed at Calcutta, 1846).
M'Crindle (Calcutta, 1879); Periplus of the Euxine, W.
He was ordained in August 1829, and started at once for India, but was twice shipwrecked before he reached Calcutta in May 1830, and lost all his books and other property.
Making Calcutta the base of his operations, he at once identified himself with a policy which had far-reaching results.
In the same year Duff took part in founding the Calcutta Review, of which from 1845 to 1849 he was editor.
Duff gave much thought and time to the university of Calcutta, which owes its examination system and the prominence given to physical sciences to his influence.
As a memorial of his work the Duff Hall was erected in the centre of the educational buildings of Calcutta; and a fund of Li 13000 was raised for his disposal, the capital of which was afterwards to be used for invalided missionaries of his own church.
This species has a more extensive geographical range than the last, being found in the Bengal Sundarbans near Calcutta, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
- The first Indian periodical was the Asiatick Miscellany (Calcutta, 1785-1789), probably edited by F.
The Calcutta Monthly Register was published in 1790, and the Calcutta Monthly Journal from 1798 to 1841.
Among other early Calcutta magazines were the Asiatic Observer (1823-1824), the Quarterly Oriental Magazine (1824-1827), and the Royal Sporting Magazine (1833-1838).
The Calcutta Literary Gazette was published in 1830-1834, and the Calcutta Review, still the most important serial of the Indian Empire, first appeared in 1846 under the editorship of Sir J.
Of other contemporary magazines the Hindustan Review (Allahabad), the Modern Review (Calcutta), the Indian Review (Madras), the Madras Review, a quarterly first published in 1895, and the Calcutta University Magazine (1894), are important.
The most important channel of the Ganges for commerce is the Hugli, on which stands Calcutta, about 90 m.
Below Calcutta important boat routes through the delta connect the Hugli with the eastern branches of the river, for both native craft and steamers.
The Ganges is essentially a river of great cities: Calcutta, Monghyr, Patna, Benares and Allahabad all lie on its course below its junction with the Jumna; and the ancient capitals, Agra and Delhi, are on the Jumna, higher up. The catchment basin of the Ganges is bounded on the N.
Per mile; from Benares to Calcutta, between 4 and 5 in.; from Calcutta to the sea, I to 2 in.
Other editions are by Turner Macan (Calcutta, 1829), J.