Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common.
Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc, blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common.
Heulandite, with thomsonite, stilbite, scolecite, calcite and chalcedony, occur as infilling minerals.
Calcium carbonate separates as hexagonal calcite from cold solutions (below 30°), and as rhombic aragonite from solutions at higher temperatures; lead and strontium carbonates, however, induce the separation of aragonite at lower temperatures.
These often have the form of prisms of calcite surrounded by a cuti cular meshwork; the whole is nourished and kept alive by processes, which in Crania are branched; these perforate the shell and permit the access of the coelomic fluid throughout its substance.
Besides the ordinary shell money, there is a sort of stone coinage, consisting of huge calcite or limestone discs or wheels from 6 in.
Many are found as minerals, the more important of such naturally occurring carbonates being cerussite (lead carbonate, PbC03), malachite and azurite (both basic copper carbonates), calamine (zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3), witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO 3), strontianite (strontium carbonate, SrC03), calcite (calcium carbonate, CaC03), dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate, CaCO 3 MgCO 3), and sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3.
A vase of calcite, also dedicated by Entemena, has been found at Nippur.
It may also be accompanied by pyrites, galena, arsenides and antimonides, quartz, calcite, dolomite, &c. It is widely distributed, and is particularly abundant in Germany (the Harz, Silesia), Austro-Hungary, Belgium, the United States and in England (Cumberland, Derbyshire, Cornwall, North Wales).
Second in importance is the carbonate, calamine (q.v.) or zinc spar, which at one time was the principal ore; it almost invariably contains the carbonates of cadmium, iron, manganese, magnesium and calcium, and may be contaminated with clay, oxides of iron, galena and calcite; "white calamine" owes its colour to much clay; "red calamine" to admixed iron and manganese oxides.
Here very clean non-magnetic concentrate of willemite, which is an anhydrous zinc silicate and a very highgrade zinc ore, is separated from an intimate mixture of willemite, zincite and franklinites, with calcite and some manganese silicates.
The divisional planes often contain small films of other minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum and iron pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena have been observed.
At Moriah and Port Henry, in Essex county, is a stone known as ophlite marble, a mixture of serpentine, dolomite and calcite interspersed with small flecks of phlogopite.
Thus the sulphate constitutes the minerals anhydrite, alabaster, gypsum, and selenite; the carbonate occurs dissolved in most natural waters and as the minerals chalk, marble, calcite, aragonite; also in the double carbonates such as dolomite, bromlite, barytocalcite; the fluoride as fluorspar; the fluophosphate constitutes the mineral apatite; while all the more important mineral silicates contain a proportion of this element.
In the animal kingdom it occurs as both calcite and aragonite in the tests of the foraminifera, echinoderms, brachiopoda, and mollusca; also in the skeletons of sponges and corals.
Other minerals which occur in the rocks of this group are calcite, garnet, biotite, chloritoid, epidote, tourmaline and graphite or dark carbonaceous materials.
It also enters (as carbonates) into the composition of many minerals, such as chalk, dolomite, calcite, witherite, calamine and spathic iron ore.
It is a constituent of the minerals cerussite, malachite, azurite, spathic iron ore, calamine, strontianite, witherite, calcite aragonite, limestone, &c. It may be prepared by burning carbon in excess of air or oxygen, by the direct decomposition of many carbonates by heat, and by the decomposition of carbonates with mineral acids, M2C03+2HC1=2MCl-FH 2 O+CO 2.
It is often associated with blende and pyrites, and with calcite, fluorspar, quartz, barytes, chalybite and pearlspar as gangue minerals; in the upper oxidized parts of the deposits, cerussite and anglesite occur as alteration products.
The zone of the external surface of the mantle within the edge secretes a layer formed of prisms of calcite; the rest of the epithelium from this zone to the apex secretes the inner layer of the shell, composed of successive laminae; this is the nacreous layer, and in certain species has a commercial value as nacre or mother-of-pearl.
Now, whether a real, though undetected, change occurs is a question to be determined from case to case; it is certain, however, that a substance like aragonite (a mineral form of calcium carbonate) has sensibly persisted in geological periods, though the polymorphous calcite is the more stable form.
The other minerals found in the concentrates are pebbles and fragments of pyrope, zircon, cyanite, chrome-diopside, enstatite, a green pyroxene, mica, ilmenite, magnetite, chromite, hornblende, olivine, barytes, calcite and pyrites.
Calcite crystals, drusy, feathery or fern-like, line the sides and bottom of every water-filled cavity, and indeed constitute the sub stance of which they are made.
The copper is also accompanied by epidote, calcite, prehnite, analcite and other zeolitic minerals.
Pseudomorphs after calcite are known; and it is notable that native copper occurs pseudomorphous after aragonite at Corocoro, in Bolivia, where the copper is disseminated through sandstone.
Barium occurs chiefly in the form of barytes or heavy spar, BaS 04, and witherite, BaCO 3, and to a less extent in baryto-calcite, baryto-celestine, and various complex silicates.