A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.
Of the sodium silicates the most important is the mixture known as soluble soda glass formed by calcining a mixture of white sand, soda-ash and charcoal, or by dissolving silica in hot caustic soda under pressure.
A variety of animal charcoal is sometimes prepared by calcining fresh blood with potassium carbonate in large cylinders, the mass being purified by boiling out with dilute hydrochloric acid and subsequent reheating.
Potassium carbonate, K 2 CO 3, popularly known as "potashes," was originally obtained in countries where wood was cheap by lixiviating wood ashes in wooden tubs, evaporating the solution to dryness in iron pots and calcining the residue; in more recent practice the calcination is carried out in reverberatory furnaces.
It was obtained as a by-product in many chemical reactions, and subsequently used to be extracted from kainite, one of the Stassfurt minerals, but the process is now given up because the salt can be produced cheaply enough from the chloride by decomposing it with sulphuric acid and calcining the residue.
It is mentioned in the De inventione veritatis ascribed to Geber, wherein it is obtained by calcining a mixture of nitre, alum and blue vitriol.
The lining of the converter is made of 90% of the mixture of lime and magnesia which results from calcining dolomite, (Ca,Mg)CO i, at a very high temperature, and 10% of coal tar freed from its water by heating.
The hydrochloric acid from the calcining-furnaces or "roasters" cannot be employed immediately for the Deacon process, as the sulphuric acid always contained in the roaster gases soon " poisons " the contact-substance and renders it inoperative.
Reverberatory furnaces of three types are employed in calcining copper ores: (I) fixed furnaces, with either hand or mechanical rabbling; (2) furnaces with movable beds; (3) furnaces with rotating working chambers.
Shaft calcining furnaces are available for fine ores and permit the recovery of the sulphur.
The Peter Spence type of calcining furnace has been followed in a large number of inventions.
Shaft calcining furnaces like the Gerstenhoffer, Hasenclever, and others designed for burning pyrites fines have not found favour in modern copper works.
The conversion of copper sulphide into the chlorides may be accomplished by calcining with common salt, or by treating the ores with ferrous chloride and hydrochloric acid or with ferric chloride.
The suggestion made in 1789 by Jean Claude de la Metherie (1743-1817), the editor of the Journal de physique, that this might be done by calcining with charcoal the sulphate of soda formed from salt by the action of oil of vitriol, did not succeed in practice because the product was almost entirely sulphide of soda, but it gave Le Blanc, as he himself acknowledged, a basis upon which to work.
In 1762 and 1764 he published experiments in refutation of the decision of the Florentine Academy, at that time generally accepted, that water is incompressible; and in 1768 he described the preparation, by calcining oyster-shell with sulphur, of the phosphorescent material known as Canton's phosphorus.
The pentoxide, V205, is obtained when ammonium metavanadate is strongly heated, on calcining the sulphide, or by the decomposition of vanadyl trichloride with water.
(a) Charge not melted =roasting or calcining furnaces.
According to the purposes to which they are applied, reverberatory furnaces may be classed into two groups, namely, fusion or melting furnaces, and calcining or wasting furnaces, also called calciners.
Calcining furnaces have a less extended application, being chiefly employed in the conversion of metallic sulphides into oxides by continued exposure to the action of air at a temperature far below that of fusion, or into chlorides by roasting with common salt.
Gain (Comptes rendus, 1906, 1 43, p. 823) by calcining ammonium metavanadate and saturating a solution of the resulting oxides with sulphur dioxide; the resulting blue solution (from which a sulphate of composition 2V 2 0 4.3S0 2.10H 2 O can be isolated) is then boiled with water, when sulphur dioxide is liberated and a pale red crystalline powder of hypovanadic acid, H4V205, is precipitated.