Galbanum, myrrh, stacte, frankincense, calamus, cassia and cinnamon, were all of them used in perfumes, even the myrrh being probably the kind distinguished at the present time in the Bombay market as perfumed myrrh or bissabol, which still forms an ingredient of the joss sticks used as incense in the temples in China.
An Indian element derived from the northeast is most marked on the eastern side: the Himalayan Gloriosa will suffice as an example, and of more tropical types Phoenix and Calamus amongst palms. The forest flora of Madagascar, though including an endemic family Chlaenaceae, is essentially tropical African and the upland flora south temperate.
The most striking trees in the forest region are, in the basin of the Cavalla, the giant Funtumia elastica, which grows to an altitude of 200 ft.; various kinds of Parinarium, Oldfieldia and Khaya; the bombax or cotton tree, giant dracaenas, many kinds of fig; Borassus palms, oil palms, the climbing Calamus palms, and on the coast the coconut.
Pubescens, all natives of Upper India (Lassen, however, identifies bdolah with musk); calamus (Heb.
Kaneh; sweet calamus, keneh bosem, Ex.
24), identified by Royle with the Andropogon Calamus aromaticus or roosa grass of India; cassia (Heb.
Olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the "camphor laurel" of China and Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the Indian Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China; elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gumdragon or dragon's blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago, Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation); star anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the Hindus, much used for incense in India.
The leaves, which show great variety in size and form, are generally broad and net-veined, but in sweet-flag (Acorus Calamus) are long and narrow with parallel veins.
The sweet-flag Acorus Calamus, which occurs apparently wild in England in ditches, ponds, &c., is supposed to have been introduced.
The following genera are among those most commonly cultivated: Acanthophoenix Chamaerops Martinezia Acanthorhiza Cocos Oreodoxa Areca Corypha Phoenix Bactris Geonoma Pritchardia Brahea Hyophorbe Rhapis Calamus Kentia Sabal Caryota Latania Stevensonia Ceroxylon Livistonia Thrinax Chamaedorea Ferns.
Harned; Horace Traubel, With Walt Whitman in Camden (Boston, 1007), a record of talks in 18$8, full of material; Bliss Perry, Walt Whitman: His Life and Work (Boston, 1907), with new material and unpublished letters; Calamus, a series of letters (1868-1880) written by Whitman to a "young friend" (Peter Doyle), edited by R.
ACORUS CALAMUS, sweet-sedge or sweet-flag, a plant of the natural order Araceae, which shares with the Cuckoo Pint (Arum) the representation in Britain of that order of Monocotyledons.
It was the Calamus aromaticus of the medieval druggists and perhaps of the ancients, though the latter has been referred by some to the Citron grass, Andropogon Nardus.
In the tropical zone large figs abound, Terminalia, Shorea (sal), laurels, many Leguminosae, Bombax, Artocarpus, bamboos and several palms, among which species of Calamus are remarkable, climbing over the largest trees; and this is the western limit of Cycas and Myristica (nutmeg).
The spice "Calamus" or "Sweet-cane" of the Scriptures, one of the ingredients of the holy anointing oil of the Jews, was perhaps one of the fragrant species of Andropogon.
The rhizome of Acorus Calamus is sometimes adulterated with that of Iris Pseudacorus, which, however, is distinguishable by its lack of odour, a stringent taste and dark colour.