On the eastern side of the river, on the other hand, there are several important tributaries descending from the Persian mountains: the Khabur, a little north of 37° N., navigable for rafts; the Great Zab, at 36° N., just below Nimrud, the ancient Calah; the Little Zab, about 35° 15' N.; the 'Adhem at 34° N.
South of Mosul, at which point navigation is blocked by two ancient dams, erected, apparently, to control the river for the Assyrian city of Calah, the ruins of which are called Nimrud by the natives after these dams, which they conceive to be the work of that mythical hero.
Below that the ruins of Calah, the second capital; while 35 m.
With the exception of Assur, the original capital, the chief cities of the country, Nineveh, Calah and Arbela, were all on the left bank of the Tigris.
It remained the capital long after the Assyrians had become the dominant power in western Asia, but was finally supplanted by Calah (Nimrud), Nineveh (Nebi Yunus and Kuyunjik), and Dur-Sargina (Khorsabad), some 60 m.
At Nimrud (Calah) were also excavated, and hundreds of enamelled tiles were disinterred.
Shalmaneser was the founder of Calah, and his annals, which have recently been discovered at Assur, show how widely extended the Assyrian empire already was.
Calah became the favourite residence of a monarch who was distinguished even among Assyrian conquerors for his revolting cruelties.
In 746 B.C. Calah joined the rebels, and on the 13th of Iyyar in the following year, Pulu or Pul, who took the name of Tiglath-pileser III., seized the crown and inaugurated a new and vigorous policy.
Calah was burned thou h the stron walls g YP, g g of Nineveh protected the relics of the Assyrian army which had taken refuge behind them; and when the raiders had passed on to other fields of booty, a new palace was erected among the ruins of the neighbouring city.
Arik-den-ilu, his son Hadad-nirari I., his son Shalmaneser I., his son (built Calah) Tiglath-In-aristi I., his son, conquers Babylon cir.
CALAH (so in the Bible; Kalah in the Assyrian inscriptions), an ancient city situated in the angle formed by the Tigris and the upper Zab, 19 m.
II, 12) mentions Calah as built by Nimrod.
The means at his disposal were inadequate, his excavations were incomplete and also unscientific in that his prime object was the discovery of inscriptions and museum objects; but he was wonderfully successful in achieving the results at which he aimed, and the numerous statues, monuments, inscribed stones, bronze objects and the like found by him in the ruins of Calah are among the most precious possessions of the British Museum.
The principal buildings discovered at Calah are: - (a) the North-West palace, south of the ziggurat, one of the most complete and perfect Assyrian buildings known, about 350 ft.
While the ruins of Calah were remarkably rich in monumental material, enamelled bricks, bronze and ivory objects and the like, they yielded few of the inscribed clay tablets found in such great numbers at Nineveh and various Babylonian sites.
Not a few of the astrological and omen tablets in the Kuyunjik collection of the British Museum, however, although found at Nineveh, were executed, according to their own testimony, at Calah for the rab-dup-sarre or principal librarian during the reigns of Sargon and Sennacherib (716-684 B.C.).
From this it would appear that there was at that time at Calah a library or a collection of archives which was later removed to Nineveh.
In the prestige of antiquity and religious renown, Calah was inferior to the older capital, Assur, while in population and general importance it was much inferior to the neighbouring Nineveh.
Shalmaneser died soon afterwards in 823 B.C. He had built a palace at Calah, and the annals of his reign are engraved on an obelisk of black marble which he erected there.
Of Calah at Nimrud to the S.
Great emphasis has been laid on the agreement of a tetrapolis, formed by Nineveh, Khorsabad, Calah and Keramlis, with the dimensions given by Diodorus and with the phrase " an exceeding great city of three days' journey ."
Each had its own saknu, and the governor of Nineveh stands below the governors of Assur and Calah in official lists.
In deeds of sale " the road to Calah " is as often named as the " king's highway " to Arbela or Assur.
We may conjecture that it was founded by settlers from Babylonia Nina, and the statement that Nimrod founded it from Babylonia, along with Calah, Rehoboth-Ir and Resen, shows that this opinion was early held.
Set out on several of his expeditions from Nineveh, but in the latter part of his reign resided at Calah, and when rebellion broke out under his son Assur-daninapli Nineveh sided with the rebel prince.
On the removal of the seat of residence of the Assyrian kings to Calah (c. 1300 B.C.), and then in the 8th century to Nineveh, the centre of the Assur cult was likewise transferred, though the sanctity of the old seat at Assur continued to be recognized.
Composed for the temples of Babylonia were transferred to Assur,, Calah, Harran, Arbela and Nineveh in the north; and the myths and legends also wandered to Assyria, where, to be sure,.