It is one of the strongest instances furnished by history of the fascination exercised by an idea that the Italians themselves should have grown to glory in this dependence of their nation upon Caesars who had nothing but a name in common with the Roman Imperator of the past.
81-96, the second son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus and Flavia Domitilla, twelfth of the Caesars, and third of the Flavian dynasty, was born at Rome on the 24th of October A.D.
Baring Gould, The Tragedy of the Caesars (3rd ed., 1892); H.
Veith, Geschichte der Feldziige C. Julius Caesars (1906).
It was originally intended to contain a history of the twelve Caesars, but concluded with the murder of the dictator, and in some MSS.
The educated bourgeoisie, which controls the fields of politics, science, finance, administration, art and literature, does not trouble itself about that great spiritual universal monarchy which Rome, as heir of the Caesars, claimed for the Vatican, and to which the Curia of to-day still clings.
The Rhine practically formed the boundary between Gauls and Germans, though one Gaulish tribe, the Menapii, is said to have been living beyond the Rhine at its mouth, and shortly before the arrival of Caesar an invading force of Germans had seized and settled down in what is now Alsace, 72 B.C. At this time the Gauls were being pressed by the Germans along the whole frontier, and several of Caesars campaigns were occupied with operations, either against the Germans, or against Gaulish tribes set in motion by the Germans.
During the period of Caesars government he succeeded in annexing the whole of Gaul as far as the Rhine.
There is little doubt that during the last century before the Christian era the Celtic peoples had been pushed considerably fartherwest by the Teutonic peoples, a process which Their was still going on in Caesars time, when we hear of ments.
Thus grew with the up the Holy Roman Empire, that strange state which, mp directly descending through the empire of Charlemagne from the empire of the Caesars, contained so many elements foreign to ancient life.
For three days the representative of the Caesars entreated to be admitted into the popes presence.
A circus, other colonnades and great numbers of baths were built, and new aqueducts to supply them bore the names of Caesars, the finest being the work of Hadrian.
Apart from the Outlines he published only The Imperial Domains and the Colonate (1890), The Roman Frontier System (1895), and articles in periodicals of which the most important was an article in the Quarterly Review on the early Caesars (April, 1905).
This, too, was done when the two Caesars were in the city, the first of whom was the eldest and chief of all and the other held fourth grade of the imperial dignity after him.
The title was adopted by all the succeeding Caesars or emperors of Rome long after they had ceased to be connected by blood with the first Augustus.
His sudden withdrawal to Rhodes has been variously explained, but, in part at least, it was probably due to the plain indications which Augustus now gave of his wish that the young Caesars should be regarded as his heirs.
Charles the Great, having proclaimed himself successor of the Caesars, was obscurely ambitious of imitating the Augusti also in the sphere of letters.
The precedence of the Caesars indeed, was always admitted by the Arsacids; and- Phraates IV soon entered into a state of dependency on Rome by sendinl (9 B.C.) four of his sons as hostages to Augustusa convenien method of obviating the danger threatened in their person without, the necessity of killing them.
It was in the third century that the cult of Mithras, with its mysteries and a theology evolved from Zoroastrianism, attained the widest diffusion in all Latin-speaking provinces of the Roman dominion; and it even seemed for a while as though the Sot invictus Mithras, highly favored by the Caesars, would become the official deity-in-chief of the empire.
In his writings he dwelt upon important contributions of historical Christianity, and maintained especially that, in continuing the work of the Caesars, the Catholic church had been the most potent factor in civilizing the invading barbarians and in organizing the life of the middle ages.
Suetonius ' Lives of the Caesars is but a superior kind of journalism.
His other works include Select and Choice Observations concerning the First Twelve Caesars (1635); A Treatise of Divinity (1646-1651); Annotations upon the New Testament (1650), of which a Latin translation by Arnold was published at Leipzig in 1732; A Body of Divinity (1654); A Treatise of Religion and Learning (1656); Annotations of the Five Poetical Books of the Old Testament (1657).
Completed, but the decoration, carried on under later Ptolemies and Caesars, was never finished.
A second fragment (now in the museum at Aix in Provence) was brought from Egypt in 1809; it supplements the preamble by specifying the titles of the emperors and Caesars and the number of times they had held them, whereby the date of publication can be accurately determined.
Gades, once Phoenician, gained, by Caesars favor and the intercession of Balbus, a Roman municipal charter as municipium: that is, its citizens were regarded as sufficiently Romanized to be granted both the Roman personal franchise and the Roman city-rights.
Aristocracy of the kingdom dominated the other classes, strengthened by the prestige of birth, the ownership of the soil and the practice of arms. Side by side with this martial nobility the Druids constituted a priesthood unique in ancient times; neither hereditary as in India, nor composed of isolated priests as in Greece, nor -of independent colleges as at Rome, it was a true corporation, which at first possessed great moral authority, though by Caesars time it had lost both strength and prestige.
This impotence of the state was a permanent cause of those discords and revolts, which in the 1st century n.c. were so singularly favorable to Caesars ambition.
It had to wait two centuries after the revolution of 987 before it was strong enough to take up the dormant tradition of an authority like that of Rome; and until then it cunningly avoided unequal strife in which, victory being impossible, reverses might have weakened those titles, higher than any due to feudal rights, conferred by the heritage of the Caesars and the coronation at Reims, and held in reserve for the future.
In Caesars Head, and 3157 ft.
In consequence of the rising of the Bagaudae in Gaul, and the threatening attitude of the German peoples on the Rhine, he appointed Maximian Augustus in 286; and, in view of further dangers and disturbances in the empire, proclaimed Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Caesars in 2 93.