But it also appears that honeydew may be excreted by ordinary processes of over-turgescence pressing the liquid through water-pores, as in the tropical Caesalpinia, Calliandra, &c. That these exudations on leaves should afterwards serve as pabulum for Fungie.g.
Formerly this coast region furnished large quantities of Brazil-wood (Caesalpinia echinata), and the river valleys have long been the principal source of Brazil's best cabinet-wood - rosewood (Dalbergia nigra), jacaranda (Machaeriumfirmum,Benth.),vinhatico (Plathymenia foliosa, Benth.), peroba (Aspidosperma peroba), cedro, &c. The exotic mangabeira (mango) is found everywhere along the coast, together with the bamboo, orange, lemon, banana, cashew, &c.
The principal products of this class are india-rubber, mate, Brazil nuts, vegetable wax, palm fibre, cabinet woods, and medicinal leaves, roots, resins, &c. Before the discovery of the cheaper aniline colours, dye-woods were among the most valuable products of the country; in fact, Brazil derives her name from that of a dye-wood (Brazil-wood-Caesalpinia echinata), known as bresill, brasilly, bresilji, braxilis, or brasile long before the discovery of America (see Humboldt's Geographie du nouveau continent, tom.
Boreale) which should not be confounded with the Brazilian Caesalpinia, palo blanco (Lysiloma candida), the cascalote and divi-divi trees (Caesalpinia Cacalaco and C. coriaria), the "zapote chico " (Achras sapota) from which chicle is extracted, " zapote prieto " (Diospyros ebenaster), wild fig, myrtles, bamboos and many of the types already mentioned in connexion with the sub-tropical zone.
Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata), valuable for its timber and colouring extract, and "roco" (Bixa orellana), the "urucn" of Brazil which furnishes the anatto of commerce, are widely distributed in central and southern Colombia, and another species of the first-named genus, the C. coariaria, produces the "divi-divi" of the Colombian export trade - a peculiarly shaped seed-pod, rich in tannic and gallic acids, and used for tanning leather.
The mere enumeration of the genera will indicate how close the flowering plants are to living forms. Newberry records Juglans, Myrica (7 species), Populus, Salix (5 species), Quercus, Planera, Ficus (3 species), Persoonia and another extinct Proteaceous genus named Proteoides, Magnolia (7 species), Liriodendron (4 species), Menispermites, Laurus and allied plants, Sassafras (3 species), Cinnamomum, Prunus, Hymenaea, Dalbergia, Bauhinia, Caesalpinia, Fontainea, Colutea and other Leguminosae, Ilex, Celastrus, Celastrophyllum (Io species), Acer, Rhamnites, Paliurus, Cissites, Tiliaephyllum, Passiflora, Eucalyptus (5 species), Hedera, Aralia (8 species), Cornophyllum, Andromeda (4 species), Myrsine, Sapotacites, Diospyros, Acerates, Viburnum and various genera of uncertain affinities.
Among the Dicotyledons, the Leguminosae take the first place with 131 species, including Acacia, Caesalpinia and Cassia, each represented by several forms. The occurrence of 90 species of Amentaceae shows that, as the climate became less tropical, the relative proportion of this group to the total flora increased.