CAERPHILLY, a market town of Glamorganshire, Wales, 1524 m.
In 1858 was opened the Rhymney railway from Rhymney to Caerphilly and on to Taff's Well, whence it had running powers over the Taff Vale railway to Cardiff, but in 1871, by means of a tunnel about 2000 yds.
Long, under Cefn Onn, a direct line was provided from Caerphilly to Cardiff.
The Pontypridd and Newport railway was constructed in 1887, and there is a joint station at Caerphilly for both railways.
The ancient commote of Senghenydd (corresponding to the modern hundred of Caerphilly) comprised the mountainous district extending from the ridge of Cefn Onn on the south to Breconshire on the north, being bounded by the rivers Taff and Rumney on the west and east.
To keep these in check, Gilbert de Clare, during the closing years of the reign of Henry III., built the castle of Caerphilly on the southern edge of this district, in a wide plain between the two rivers.
In 1661 the corporation of Cardiff complained of Cardiff's impoverishment by reason of a fair held every three weeks for the previous four years at Caerphilly, though "no Borough."
Its markets during the 19th century had been chiefly noted for the Caerphilly cheese sold there.
On Wednesday and Thursday, January 5th and 6th, 1 743, the friends of aggressive Christianity in Wales met at Wadford, near Caerphilly, Glam., in order to organize their societies.
The following towns had each in 1901 a population exceeding 10,000: Cardiff, Ystradyfodwg, Swansea, Merthyr Tydfil, Aberdare, Pontypridd, Llanelly, Ogmore and Garw, Pembroke, Caerphilly, Maesteg, Wrexham, Penarth, Neath, Festiniog, Bangor, Holyhead, Carmarthen.
The rich low-lying lands of Morganwg and Gwent were thus firmly occupied, nor were they ever permanently recovered by the Welsh princes; and such natives as remained were kept in subjection by the almost impregnable fortresses of stone erected at Caerphilly, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Neath, Kidwelly and other places.