- The second suborder of marsupials, the Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American, and typically represented by the family Epanorthidae, the majority of the members of which are extinct, their remains being found in the probably Miocene Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia, although one existing genus (Caenolestes) survives in Ecuador and Colombia.
Externally Caenolestes has a shrew-like appearance.
- Skull of Caenolestes obscurus.
The occurrence in the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia of fossil marsupials allied to the living Caenolestes has been mentioned above.
Thomas, Catalogue of Monotremata and Marsupialia in the British Museum (1888); "On Caenolestes, a Survivor of the Epanorthidae," Proc. Zool.