CADI (gddi), a judge in a malikama or Mahommedan ecclesiastical court, in which decisions are rendered on the basis of the canon law of Islam (shari `a).
According to Shafi`ite law, such a cadi must be a male, free, adult Moslem, intelligent, of unassailed character, able to see, hear and write, learned in the Koran, the traditions, the Agreement, the differences of the legal schools, acquainted with Arabic grammar and the exegesis of the Koran.
The conditions of the surrender were all violated - the cadi Ibn Djahhaff burnt alive, a vast number of the citizens who had escaped death by famine slaughtered, and the possessions divided among the Campeador's companions.
Having received permission to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, he reached Cairo, where he was presented to the sultan, al-Malik udh-Dhahir Barkuk, who insisted on his remaining there, and in the year 1384 made him grand cadi of the Malikite rite for Cairo.
The history, Tarikh Bulgar, said to have been written in the 12th century by an Arabian cadi of the city Bolgari, has not yet been discovered; but the Arabian historians, Ibn Foslan, Ibn Haukal, Abul Hamid Andalusi, Abu Abdallah Harnati, and several others, who had visited the kingdom, beginning with the 10th century, have left descriptions of it.
The founder of the house was Abd-ul-Qasim Mahommed, the cadi of Seville in 1023.
The grand cadi, who must belong to the sect of the Hanifis, sits at Cairo, and is aided by a council of Ulema or learned men.
There is aso a grand cadi, nominated by the sultan of Turkey from among the Ulema of Stamboul.
The governor of Cairo attended the ceremony, with the cadi and, others, and gave the signal for the cutting of the dam.
After three or four years, fortified with the certificates of his various professors, he seeks a place in a law-court or as a teacher, preacher, cadi, or mufti of a village or minor town, or else one of the innumerable posts of confidence for which the complicated ceremonial of Mahommedanism demands a theologian, and which are generally paid out of pious foundations.
The Ottoman sultans still bear the title of "successors of the Prophet," and still find it useful in foreign relations, since there is or may be some advantage in the right of the caliph to nominate the chief cadi WO) of Egypt and in the fact that the spiritual head of Khiva calls himself only the nakib (vicegerent) of the sultan.'
Every place of any importance has at least one cadi, who is nominated by the government, 4 but has no further dependence 1 Till the Russians gained preponderating influence the khan of Khiva also acknowledged the sultan as his suzerain.
4 In Egypt before the time of Said Pasha (1854-1863) the local judges were appointed by the chief cadi of Cairo, who is sent from Constantinople.
A fatwa is a decision according to Koran and Sunna, but without reasons, on an abstract case of law which is brought before the mufti by appeal from the cadi's judgment or by reference from the cadi himself.
For example, a dispute between master and slave may be found by the cadi to turn on the general question, "Has Zaid, the master of `Amr, S the absolute right to dispose of his slave's earnings ?"
Averroes, who was versed in the Malekite system of law, was made cadi of Seville (1169), and in similar appointments the next twenty-five years of his life were passed.
- As Wathiq had appointed no successor the vizier Mahommed Zayyat had cast his eye on his son Mahommed, who was still a child, but the generals Wasif and Itakh, seconded by the upper cadi Ibn abi Da`ud, refused their consent, and offered the supreme power to Wathiq's brother Ja`far, who at his installation adopted the name of al-Motawakkil `ala 'llah (" he who trusts in God").
The upper cadi Ibn abi Da`ud, the leader of the movement against orthodoxy, who had stood in great esteem with Mamun and had fulfilled his high office under the reigns of Motasim and Wathiq, had a stroke of paralysis in the year 848.
An orthodox upper cadi was named instead, and the dogma of the created Koran was declared heresy; therewith began a persecution of all the adherents of that doctrine and other Motazilite tenets.
A proposition by the cadi Abu Yusuf to Harun al-Rashid to renew it had not been adopted.
The only deed of power, however, that is recorded of him, is that he opposed himself to the substitution of a Shiite head cadi for the Sunnite, so that Baha addaula had to content himself with giving to the Shiites a special judge, to whom he gave the title of naqib (superintendent).
The officials charged with the administration of justice according to the shar are judges, called sheik/i-ui-islam and kazi (had/i, kadi or cadi of Arabs and Turks), members of the clergy appointed by the government and receiving a fixed salary, but some cities are without regular appointed judges and the title of cadi is almost obsolete; decisions according to the .char are given by all members of the clergy, ranging from ignorant mullahs of little villages and cantons to learned mujiahids of the great cities.
A persistent but apparently later tradition asserts that he died in prison after severe beating, because he refused to obey al-Mansur's command to act as a judge (cadi, gadi).
The Koran, the sole authentic authority in all matters, legal or civil, never accurately distinguished between the sheikh and the cadi, and its phrases, besides, are vague and capable of admitting different and even opposite interpretations.