Yams and sweet-potatoes, yuccas, malangas, cacao, rice - which is one of the most important foods of the people, but which is not yet widely cultivated on a profitable basis - and Indian corn, which grows everywhere and yields two crops yearly, may be mentioned also.
Other economic plants and fruits having a wide distribution are tobacco, maize, rice, beans, sweet potatoes, bananas, cacao (Theobroma cacao), mandioca or cassava (Manihot utilitissima), aipim or sweet mandioca (M.
The principal products are rubber, cacao and nuts; cattle are raised on the elevated plains of the north, while curing fish and collecting turtle eggs for their oil give occupation to many people on the rivers.
It is situated near the Guanajibo river, in a fertile agricultural region which produces sugar, coffee, fruit, cacao and tobacco.
The principal agricultural products are coffee, cacau (cacao), sugar, Indian corn and beans.
Cacau (Theobroma cacao) is an indigenous product and is extensively cultivated on the Caribbean slopes.
The inhabitants grow hemp, Indian corn, coffee, sibucao, cacao, cocoanuts (for copra) and sugar, weave rough fabrics and manufacture tuba (a kind of wine used as a stimulant), clay pots and jars, salt and soap. There is some fishing here.
The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores.
Cacao, tobacco, cotton, rice and indigo are grown in the neighbouring country, and the town has a considerable trade in these and other commodities; it also manufactures sugar, fans and woven fabrics.
Among its exports are sugar, coffee, cacao, tobacco and fruit.
Above sea-level, has a temperate, healthy climate with a mean annual temperature of 78° F., and is surrounded by a highly productive country from which are exported coffee, sugar, cacao and rum.
Cattle, swine and goats are raised, and the state produces coffee, sugar, cacao, beans, cereals and cheese.
" Tunas " or cactus fruit, red peppers, " zapotes " (the fruit of various trees), " arrayan " (Myrtus arayan), " ciruelas " or Mexican plums (Spondias), guavas, " huamuchil " (Pithecolobium dulce), tamarinds, aguacates (Persea gratissima), bananas, plantains, pineapples, grapes, oranges, lemons, limes, granadillas, chirimoyas, mammees (Mammea americana), coco-nuts, cacao, mangoes, olives, gourds and melons, are among the fruits of the country, and rice, wheat, Indian corn, beans, yams, sweet potatoes, onions and " tomatoes " (Physalis) are among its better-known food products.
In these regions, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cacao, rice, sweet potatoes, alfalfa, beans and cassava are produced, and Indian corn yields two and three crops a year.
The plain and the neighbouring valleys produce cacao, tobacco, rice and sugar-cane.
The alluvial valley of the Guayas, above Guayaquil, is celebrated for the richness of its vegetation, which, in fruit alone, includes cacao, coffee, coco-nuts, pine-apples, oranges, lemons, guayavas (Psidium pomiferum), guavas (Inga spectabilis), shaddocks (or grape-fruit), pomegranates, apricots, chirimoyas (Anooa Chirimolia), granadillas (Passiflora quadrangularis), paltas (Persea gratissima, otherwise known as " alligator pears "), tunas (Cactus), mangoes (Man,gifera Indica), pacays (Prosopis dulcis), aji (Chile pepper), and many others of less importance.
Agriculture.-The agricultural industries on which the export trade depends are almost wholly restricted to the western lowlands, and include cacao, coffee, cotton, sugar, tobacco, rice, yucca and sweet potatoes.
The Guayas basin and the district about Machala are celebrated for their cacao, and produce about one-third of the world's supply.
The principal exports are cacao, rubber, coffee, tobacco, hides, cotton, Panama hats, cinchona bark and ivory nuts, the value of all exports for the year 1905 being 14,148,877 sucres, in a total of 18,565,668 sucres for the whole republic. In 1908 the exports were: cacao, about 64,000,000 lb, valued at $6,400,000; hides, valued at $135,000; rubber, valued at $235,000; coffee, valued at $273,000; and vegetable ivory, valued at $102,000.
The friars promoted the social and economic advancement of the islands, cultivated the native taste for music, introduced improvements in agriculture and imported Indian corn and cacao from America.
The soil in its vicinity is rich, producing rice, Indian corn, sugar, pepper, cacao, cotton, abaca, tobacco and copra.
There is a considerable coasting trade, sugar, brought by a tramway from neighbouring towns, is shipped from here, and the cultivation of sugar-cane is an important industry; Indian corn, tobacco, hemp, cotton and cacao are also grown.
Other products of the western districts are sugar, rum, cacao, rice, cotton, coffee and indigo.
The principal markets for Santa Cruz products are in the Bolivian cities of the Andes where sugar, rum, cacao and coffee find a ready sale.
The cacao tree is not cultivated, but grows wild in great abundance.
They have sequenced the cacao tree, the mosquito, coral, the Tasmanian devil, the bald eagle, the leafcutter ant, a germ that attacks wheat plants, and the extinct woolly mammoth.