To the native Irishman and the Scotsman, as indeed to most Englishmen, the Anglican Church was one of the main buttresses of the supremacy of the English crown and nation.
Perhaps the oldest remains are some of the piers -and buttresses of the bridge over the Moselle, which may date from about 28 B.C. The well-preserved amphitheatre just outside the modern town to the south-east was probably built in the reign of Trajan or Hadrian.
- Zululand is part of the region of hills and plateaus which descend seaward from the Drakensberg - the great mountain chain which buttresses the vast tableland of inner South Africa.
In other respects they must have resembled those of Oriental cities - the living apartments all opening towards the interior, and showing only blank walls towards ' It consisted of two parallel stone walls with buttresses, about 55 ft.
The horizontal stratification of some of these masses gives them a curiously architectural aspect, further increased by the effect of the numerous vertical joints by which the rock is cleft into buttresses and recesses along the fronts of the precipices and into pinnacles and finials along the summits.
The outer faces of the walls are strengthened by square buttresses built out at intervals of 60 yds., and on the summits of these stand the guard-houses for the troops on duty.
The lower part of the trunk bears huge buttresses, each of which ends in a long branching far-spreading; root, from the branches of which spring the peculiar knees which, rise above the level of the water.
From the main pedestal project four buttresses, on which are seated four monolith figures representing Morality, Education, Law, and Freedom.
On the faces of the buttresses below the statues are marble alto-reliefs illustrating scenes from the early history of the Pilgrims. On high panels between the buttresses are the names of the passengers of the "Mayflower."
The Pamir highlands between the base of the Tian-shan mountains and the eastern buttresses of the Hindu Kush unite these two great divides, enclosing the Gobi depression on the west; and they would again be united on the east but for the transverse valley of the Amur, which parts the Khingan mountains from the Yablonoi system to the east of Lake Baikal.
Such tides as set towards the Himalaya broke against their farther buttresses, leaving an interesting ethnographical flotsam in the northern valleys; but they never overflowed the Himalayan barrier.
The exteriors of the north Italian Gothic churches are characterized by the flatness of the roof; the treatment of the west facade as a mere screen wall, masking the true lines of the aisle roofs; the great circular window in the west front for lighting the nave; the absence of pinnacles owing to the unimportance of the buttresses; the west-end porches with columns resting on lions or other animals.
The volute buttresses, each crowned with a statue, add quaintly but happily to the general effect.
The peribolos, a large artificial platform supported by a retaining wall of squared Peiraic blocks with buttresses, was excavated in 1898 without important results; it is to be hoped that the stability of the columns has not been affected by the operations.
In Babylonia the abundance of clay and want of stone led to the employment of brick; the Babylonian temples are massive but shapeless structures of crude brick, supported by buttresses, the rain being carried off by drains, one of which at Ur was of lead.
Among its ecclesiastical edifices (nine Roman Catholic and four Protestant churches) the most noteworthy is the Roman Catholic cathedral, with huge pointed windows, slender columns and numerous flying buttresses, which, begun in the 13th century and consecrated in 1546, belongs to the period of the decadence of the Gothic style.
The exterior wall of the Merveille is of remarkable boldness; reaching a height of 108 ft., it is supported by twenty buttresses and pierced with a variety of openings.
Some damage was also inflicted on it in 1813, when Napoleon made it the centre of his operations; one of the buttresses and two arches of the old bridge were then blown up. The dismantling of the fortifications had been begun by the French in, 810, and was gradually completed after 1817, the space occupied by them being appropriated to gardens and promenades.
But in some of them the internal buildings are all of stone, while in and substantially built storehouses with buttresses and dry basements (viii.).
The roof of the cathedral is built of blocks of marble, and the various levels are reached by staircases carried up the buttresses; it is ornamented with a profusion of turrets, pinnacles and statues, of which last there are said to be no fewer than 4440, of very various styles and periods.
Here it projects in irregular bastions and buttresses, there retires into deep recesses and tunnels, but shows everywhere a ruggedness of aspect eminently characteristic. In striking contrast to these precipices are those of the Cambrian red sandstone a few miles to the east.
The narrow cramped valley of the river between Ishkashim and Kala Wamar is hedged in on the west by a long ridge flanking the highlands of Badakshan; on the east the buttresses and Nature of spurs of the Shignan mountains (of which the strike is the Oxus transverse to the direction of the river and more or less Valley..
High, form, as it were, the northern wall and buttresses which support the central table-land.
On the eastern side of India, the Ghats form a series of spurs and buttresses for the elevated inner plateau, rather than a continuous Eastern mountain wall.
Thus all the buttresses of the monarchical institution began to fall to pieces: the Church, undermined by the heresy of Jansenism, weakened by the inroads of philosophy, Ancient discredited by evil-livers among the priesthood, and Influcn~t divided against itself, like all losing parties; the and last!nobility of the court, still brave at heart, though ~~1tb0u1&
Olonos) to 7400, of Cyllene (Ziria) to 7900, in the southern corner buttresses of Parthenium and Lycaeum to more than 5000 ft., this inland plateau is again divided by numerous subsidiary ranges.
Or more buttresses 3 ft.
Of the ancient Benedictine abbey, the only remains are a part of a gateway, a lodge (a beautiful Perpendicular relic) and some buttresses, while some broken stone arches and walls remain of the conventual buildings.
The Marri and Bugti tribes, who occupy the most southern buttresses of the Suliman Mountains, are Rind Baluchis, almost certainly of Arab extraction.
The church of Santa Chiara (St Clare), the foundress of the Poor Clares, with its massive lateral buttresses, fine rose-window, and simple Gothic interior, was begun in 1257, four years after her death.
(a) Some have regarded it as meaning the more or less continuous range which buttresses up the central plateau on the north, parallel to the Taurus.