Busoga and the western part of the Elgon district in this province have a regular West African climate - hot, moist and not over-healthy.
The Eastern province consists of well-forested, undulating land (Busoga) on the coast of the lake, a vast extent of marsh round the lake-like backwaters of the Victoria Nile (Lakes Ibrahim or Kioga, Kwania, &c.) and a more stony, open, grain-growing country (Bukedi, Lobor, Karamojo).
In the Eastern province the rocks are mainly quartz, gneiss and granite, with sandstone in Busoga, basalt round Mt Elgon, slate (Busoga) and iron- g stone (Busoga and Bukedi).
There are indications of copper in Busoga, of gold in Unyoro.
Busoga and the Elgon district the flora is very West African in character.
There are luxuriant tropical forests in the coast region of Buganda, in Busoga, west Elgon, western Unyoro, eastern Toro, the central Semliki valley and north-west Ankole.
Thomson succeeded (he also discovered Lake Baringo and Mt Elgon), but turned back from the frontier of Busoga in order not to provoke Mutesa to hostilities.
The annexations of Emin on Albert Nyanza, the visit of Thomson to the closed door of Busoga, the opposition of the Europeans to the slave trade, and, lastly, the identification of the missionaries with political embassies and their letters of introduction from secular authorities, added to Mwanga's.
He gave the kingdom of Buganda a definite constitution, settled the land question in the provinces of Buganda, Busoga, Unyoro, Toro and Ankole, and also the question of native taxation.
To facilitate commerce with the Congo and with the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and to open up the Busoga region the British government in 1910 voted money to build a railway from Jinja to Kakindu.