Until the beginning of the 19th century Basutoland appears to have been uninhabited save by wandering Bushmen, whose rude rock pictures are to be found in several parts of the Drakensberg.
With the exception of a few Bushmen, who cling to the slopes of the Drakensberg, all the natives are of Bantu stock.
There is no mention of Hottentots, and the few Bushmen who dwelt in the upper regions by the Drakensberg did not come into contact with Europeans.
The great sun which shines and burns) in 1848 at the foot of the Drakensberg with the object of preventing the Bushmen who dwelt in the mountains plundering the upland farmers.
Among the mixed and other coloured races in the census returns figure 1592 Bushmen, 3597 Hottentots and 1147 Koranna; these people are found chiefly in the southwestern regions and are remnants of the true aboriginal population.
The Bushmen are, presumably, the oldest inhabitants of this, as of many other parts of South Africa.
The Bushmen numbered 40 4 8 persons.
The Bushmen have left in drawings on caves and in rocks traces of their habitation in regions where they are no longer to be found.
The natives, in addition to the Bechuana tribes, include some thousands of Bushmen (Masarwa).
Fuegians, Bushmen, Veddahs, show the same lack of concern and interest in the memory of the dead.
This last category included a few thousand Hottentots and Bushmen, but the majority were the mixed white and black " Cape Boy " class commonly called " coloured " in distinction from " natives."
The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots, now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.
These natives, whose earliest existing buildings may go back to the time of the Norman Conquest, were in a higher state of development than the Bushmen and Hottentots living farther south.
Next to the Hottentots the white settlers encountered the Bushmen (q.v.).
The missionaries from the first often found themselves at variance 1 It appears that the first persons to treat the Bushmen other than as animals to be destroyed were two missionaries, Messrs J.
Again, two of the bestmarked varieties of mankind are the Australians and the Bushmen, neither of whom, however, seems to have a natural place in Blumenbach's series.
The first inhabitants of Cape Colony of whom there is any record were Bushmen and Hottentots (q.v.).
The Bushmen retreated before the white races and now few are to be found in the colony.
Of the coloured races the Hottentots and Bushmen were estimated at 82,000, whilst the Kaffirs formed about S o% of the population.
Of the coloured inhabitants at the 1904 census 15,682 were returned as Malay, 8489 as Indians, 85,8 9 2 as Hottentots,' 4168 as Bushmen and 6289 as Griquas.
Those who chose the latter alternative had to encounter the hostility of their old foes, the Bushmen, who were widely spread over the plains from the Nieuwveld and Sneeuwberg mountains to the Orange river.
Reprisals followed; and the position became so desperate that the extermination of the Bushmen appeared to the government the only safe alternative.
Considerable trouble was caused by the emigrant Boers on either side of the Orange river, where the new corners, the Basutos and other Kaffir tribes, Bushmen and Griquas contended for mastery.
For ethnography see the works mentioned under Bushmen, Hottentots, Kaffirs and Bechuana.
But myths precisely similar in irrational and repulsive character, even in minute details, to those of the Aryan races, exist among Australians, South Sea Islanders, Eskimo, Bushmen in Africa, among Solomon Islanders, Iroquois, and so forth.
" The wind was formerly a person; he became a bird," say the Bushmen, and g' oo ka!
Among the Bushmen 4 " sorcerers assume the form of beasts and jackals."
The heavenly bodies are gods among the Bushmen, but their nature and adventures must be discussed among other myths of sun, moon and stars.
As in the common " swallowing-myths " which we have met among bushmen and Australians, and will find among the Greeks, Qat restored his brethren to life.
The Maoris and other Polynesian peoples are perhaps the best examples of a race which has risen far above the savagery of Bushmen and Australians, but has not yet arrived at the stage in which great centralized monarchies appear.
If we are to regard the Egyptian myths about the gods in animal shape, and about the non-natural superhuman heroes, and their wars and loves, as esoteric allegories devised by civilized priests, perhaps we should also explain Pund-jel, Qat, Quawteaht, the Mantis god, the Spider creator, the Coyote and Raven gods as priestly inventions, put forth in a civilized age, and retained by Australians, Bushmen, Hottentots, Ahts, Thlinkeets, Papuans, who preserve no other vestiges of high civilization.
Thus Qat, Quahteaht, Pundjel, Maui, Ioskeha, Cagn, Wainamoinen and an endless array of others represent the ideal and heroic first teachers of Melanesians, Ahts, Australians, Maoris, Algonkins, Bushmen and Finns.
The theories which connected them with the Bushmen do not seem to be correct.
The desert regions yield support only to nomadic peoples, such as the Tuareg, Tibbu, Bedouins and Bushmen, though the presence of numerous oases in the north renders the condition of life easier for the inhabitants.
But evidence bearing on the Stone age in Africa, if the latter existed apart from the localities mentioned, is so slight that little can be said save that from the available evidence the palaeoliths of the Nile valley alone can with any degree of certainty be assigned to a remote period of antiquity, and that the chips scattered over Mashonaland and the regions occupied within historic times by Bushmen are the most recent; since it has been shown that the stone flakes were used by the medieval Makalanga to engrave their hard pottery and the Bushmen were still using stone implements in the 10th century.
The Bushmen, a race of short yellowish-brown nomad hunters, inhabited, in the earliest times of which there is historic knowledge, the land adjoining the southern and eastern borders of the Kalahari desert, into which they were gradually being forced by the encroachment of the Hottentots and Bantu tribes.
With them may be classed provisionally the Hottentots, a pastoral people of medium stature and yellowish-brown complexion, who in early times shared with the Bushmen the whole of what is now Cape Colony.
All these Cronus swallowed; and this " swallow-myth " occurs in Australia, among the Bushmen, in Guiana, in Brittany (where Gargantua did the swallow-trick) and elsewhere.
They therefore invented or adapted the " swallow-myth " so familiar to Bushmen and Australians.
The Bushmen (Bleek) have the same opinion.
The formulae here summarized, with others, are familiar in the marchen of Samoyeds, Zulus, Bushmen, Hottentots and Red Indians.